The operation of steam turbine units in solar thermal power plants is very different than in conventional base-load plants. Due to the variability of the solar resource, much higher frequencies of plant start-ups are encountered. This study provides an insight to the influence of thermal energy storage (TES) integration on the typical cycling operation of solar thermal power plants. It is demonstrated that the integration of storage leads to significant reductions in the annual number of turbine starts and is thus beneficial to the turbine lifetime. At the same time, the effects of storage integration on the electricity costs are analyzed to ensure that the designs remain economically competitive. Large storage capacities, can allow the plant to be shifted from a daily starting regime to one where less than 20 plant starts occur annually. Additionally, the concept of equivalent operating hours (EOHs) is used to further analyze the direct impact of storage integration on the maintenance planning of the turbine units.

References

References
1.
Philibert
,
C.
,
Frankl
,
P.
, and
Dobrotkova
,
Z.
,
2010
,
Concentrating Solar Power: Technology Roadmap
,
International Energy Agency
,
Paris, France
.
2.
Madaeni
,
S.
,
Sioshansi
,
R.
, and
Denholm
,
P.
,
2012
, “
How Thermal Energy Storage Enhances the Economic Viability of Concentrating Solar Power
,”
Proc. IEEE
,
100
(2), pp.
335
347
.10.1109/JPROC.2011.2144950
3.
Leyzerovich
,
A.
,
2008
,
Steam Turbines for Modern Fossil Fuel Power Plants
,
1st ed.
,
The Fairmont Press, Inc.
,
Lilburn, GA
.
4.
Wibberley
,
L.
,
Scaife
,
P.
, and
Winsen
,
J.
,
2008
, “
GHG and Cost Implications of Spinning Reserve for High-Penetration Renewables
,” Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Coal, Pullenvale, Australia, Technology Assessment Report No. 73.
5.
Sioshansi
,
R.
, and
Denholm
,
P.
,
2012
, “
The Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage
,”
IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy
,
1
(3), pp.
173
183
.10.1109/TSTE.2010.2052078
6.
International Renewable Energy Agency,
2012
, Renewable Energy Technologies: Cost Analysis Series: Concentrating Solar Power, Vol. I: Power Sector, IRENA Secretariat, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
7.
Birnbaum
,
J.
,
Feldhoff
,
J.
,
Fichtner
,
M.
,
Hirsch
,
T.
,
Jöcker
,
M.
,
Pitz-Paal
,
R.
, and
Zimmermann
,
G.
,
2011
, “
Steam Temperature Stability in a Direct Steam Generation Solar Power Plant
,”
Sol. Energy
,
85
(4), pp.
660
668
.10.1016/j.solener.2010.10.005
8.
Birnbaum
,
J.
,
Jöcker
,
M.
,
Link
,
K.
,
Pitz-Paal
,
R.
,
Franziska
,
T.
, and
Zimmer
,
G.
,
2009
, “
Simulation of the Dynamic Behaviour of Steam Turbines With Modelica
,”
7th International Modelica Conference
, Como, Italy, September 20–22, pp.
702
707
.10.3384/ecp09430055
9.
Spelling
,
J.
,
Jöcker
,
M.
, and
Martin
,
A.
,
2012
, “
Thermal Modeling of a Solar Steam Turbine With a Focus on Start-Up Time Reduction
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas-Turbines Power
,
134
(
1
), p.
013001
.10.1115/1.4004148
10.
Spelling
,
J.
,
Jöcker
,
M.
, and
Martin
,
A.
,
2012
, “
Annual Performance Improvement for Solar Steam Turbines Through the Use of Temperature-Maintaining Modifications
,”
Sol. Energy
,
86
(1), pp.
496
504
.10.1016/j.solener.2011.10.023
11.
Solutia, “
Therminol VP-1: Vapor Phase—Liquid Phase Heat Transfer Fluid
,”
product brochure, Louvain-la-Neuve
,
Belgium
.
12.
Gil
,
A.
,
Medrano
,
M.
,
Martorell
,
I.
,
Lázaro
,
A.
,
Dolado
,
P.
,
Zalba
,
B.
, and
Cabeza
,
L.
,
2010
, “
State of the Art on High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage for Power Generation. Part 1—Concepts, Materials and Modellization
,”
Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.
,
14
(1), pp.
31
55
.10.1016/j.rser.2009.07.035
13.
Solar Millenium AG,
2008
, The Parabolic Trough Power Plants Andasol 1 to 3: The Largest Solar Power Plants in the World—Technology Premiere in Europe, RWE AG, Erlangen, Germany.
14.
Lindström
,
J.
,
Fällman
,
S.
,
Lyrander
,
M.
, and
Gabrielson
,
C.
,
2007
, “
Requirements and Solutions for Steam Turbines in Concentrated Solar Power Plants
,”
POWERGEN Renewable Energy Conference
, Las Vegas, March 6–8.
15.
Nyqvist
,
J.
,
Haje
,
D.
, and
Kleinerman
,
K.
,
2010
, “
The Refinement of Industrial Steam Turbines for Efficient Application in Solar Thermal Power Plants
,”
International SolarPACES Conference
, Perpignan, France, September 21–24.
16.
Jöcker
,
M.
,
2012
, personal communication.
17.
Sanders
,
W.
,
2001
,
Turbine Steam Path Maintenance and Repair
, Vol.
1
,
Pennwell Corporation
,
Tulsa, OK
.
18.
Latcovich
,
J.
,
Åstrom
,
T.
,
Frankhuizen
,
P.
,
Fukushima
,
S.
,
Hamberg
,
H.
, and
Keller
,
S.
,
2005
, “
Maintenance and Overhaul of Steam Turbines
,”
International Association of Engineering Insurers 38th Annual Conference
, Moscow, September 24–28.
19.
Schwarzbözl
,
P.
,
2006
, “
A TRNSYS Model Library for Solar Thermal Electric Components (STEC)
,” Reference Manual Release 3.0, available at: http://sel.me.wisc.edu/trnsys/trnlib/stec/stec_refguide_v3.0.pdf
20.
Solar Energy Laboratory at UW-M,
2007
, “
TRNSYS 16 a Transient System Simulation Program
,” University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
21.
Llorente
,
I.
,
Álvarez
,
J.
, and
Blanco
,
D.
,
2001
, “
Performance Model for Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plants With Thermal Storage: Comparison to Operating Data
,”
Sol. Energy
,
85
(10), pp.
2443
2460
.10.1016/j.solener.2011.07.002
22.
Jones
,
S.
,
Pitz-Paal
,
R.
,
Schwarzbözl
,
P.
,
Höhe
,
L.
,
Blair
,
N.
, and
Cable
,
R.
,
2001
, “
TRNSYS Modeling of the SEGS VI Parabolic Trough Solar Electric Generating System
,”
ASME International Solar Energy Conference Solar Forum
, Washington DC, April 21–25.
23.
Cooke
,
D.
,
1983
, Modeling of Off-Design Turbine Pressures by Stodola's Ellipse, Energy Inc., Richmond, VA.
24.
Gaul
,
H.
, and
Rabl
,
A.
,
1980
, “
Incidence-Angle Modifier and Average Optical Efficiency of Parabolic Trough Collectors
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
102
(
1
), pp.
16
21
.10.1115/1.3266115
25.
Duffie
,
J.
, and
Beckman
,
W.
,
2007
,
Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes
,
3rd ed.
,
Wiley
,
Hoboken, NJ
.
26.
Incropera
,
F.
,
DeWitt
,
D.
,
Bergman
,
T.
, and
Lavine
,
A.
,
2007
,
Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer
,
6th ed.
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
27.
Gilman
,
P.
,
Blair
,
N.
,
Mehos
,
M.
,
Christensen
,
C.
, and
Janzou
,
S.
,
2008
, “
Solar Advisor Model User Guide for Version 2.0
,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Technical Report No. NREL/TP-670-43704.
28.
Spelling
,
J.
,
Laumert
,
B.
, and
Fransson
,
T.
,
2012
, “
Optimal Gas-Turbine Design for Hybrid Solar Power Plant Operation
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
134
(
9
), p.
092301
.10.1115/1.4006986
29.
Laguarda
,
J.
,
Carril
,
J.
,
Rodríguez
,
A.
, and
Rodríguez
,
R.
,
2005
, “
Aspects of Remnant Life Assessment in Old Steam Turbines
,”
J. Marit. Res.
,
2
(3), pp.
41
58
.
30.
Pitz-Paal
,
R.
,
Dersch
,
J.
, and
Milow
,
B.
,
2004
, “
ECOSTAR: European Concentrated Solar Thermal Road-Mapping
,” Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Cologne, Germany.
31.
WorleyParsons Group
,
2009
, “
CSP Parabolic Trough Plant Cost Assessment
,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Technical Report No. NREL-0-LS-019-0001.
You do not currently have access to this content.