A survey of hitherto concepts for cost reduction of heliostats is given. The survey might serve as a base for the development of low cost heliostats that are needed to meet the current challenging cost objectives. The concepts are related to the main heliostat subfunctions and to basic approaches for cost reduction found so far. Based on the main advantages and drawbacks of every concept, the most promising ones are indicated.

References

References
1.
Pitz-Paal
,
R.
,
Dersch
,
J.
, and
Milow
,
B.
,
2005
, “
ECOSTAR: European Concentrated Solar Thermal Road-Mapping
,” Deliverable No. 7: Roadmap Document, Cologne, Germany.
2.
Kolb
,
G. J.
,
Ho
,
C. H.
,
Mancini
,
T. R.
, and
Gary
,
J. A.
,
2011
, “
Power Tower Technology Roadmap and Cost Reduction Plan
,” Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, Report No. SAND2011-2419.
3.
Gary
,
J.
,
Turchi
,
C.
, and
Sieger
,
N.
,
2011
, “
CSP and the DOE Sunshot Initiative
,”
SolarPACES 2011 Conference
,
Granada, Spain, September 20–23
.
4.
Pahl
,
G.
, and
Beitz
,
W.
,
2005
,
Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach
,
Springer-Verlag
,
New York
, Chap. 6.3.
5.
Mancini
,
T. R.
,
2000
, “
Catalog of Solar Heliostats
,” SolarPACES Technical Report No. III-1/00.
6.
Kolb
,
G. J.
,
Jones
,
S. A.
,
Donnelly
,
M. W.
,
Gorman
,
D.
,
Thomas
,
R.
,
Davenport
,
R.
, and
Lumia
,
R.
,
2007
, “
Heliostat Cost Reduction Study
,” Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, Report No. SAND2007-3293.
7.
Almanza
,
R.
,
Hernández
,
P.
,
Martínez
,
I.
, and
Mazari
,
M.
,
2009
, “
Development and Mean Life of Aluminum First-Surface Mirrors for Solar Energy Applications
,”
Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells
,
93
, pp.
1647
1651
.10.1016/j.solmat.2009.05.004
8.
Garcia
,
G.
,
Egea
,
A.
, and
Romero
,
M.
,
2004
, “
Performance Evaluation of the First Solar Tower Operating With Autonomous Heliostats: PCHA Project
,”
SolarPACES 2004
,
Oaxaca, Mexico, September 6–8
.
9.
Kubisch
,
S.
,
Randt
,
M.
,
Buck
,
R.
,
Pfahl
,
A.
, and
Unterschütz
,
S.
,
2011
, “
Wireless Heliostat and Control System for Large Self-Powered Heliostat Fields
,”
SolarPACES 2011 Conference
,
Granada, Spain, September 20–23
.
10.
Pfahl
,
A.
,
Randt
,
M.
,
Holze
,
C.
, and
Unterschütz
,
S.
,
2013
, “
Autonomous Light-Weight Heliostat With Rim Drives
,”
Solar Energy
,
92
, pp
230
240
.10.1016/j.solener.2013.03.005
11.
Plataforma Solar de Almería, 2005, “Annual Report 2004
,” Almeria, Spain, pp.
43f
.
12.
Google,
2012
, “
RE<C: Heliostat Cable Actuation System Design
,” accessed November 16, http://www.google.org/pdfs/google_heliostat_cable_actuation.pdf
13.
Francia
,
G.
,
1969
, “
Multiple Mirrored Apparatus Utilizing Solar Heat
,” U.S. Patent No. US3466119.
14.
Chen
,
D.
,
2008
, “
Synchronized Solar Concentrator Array
,” U.S. Patent No. US2008/0087274A1.
15.
Buck
,
R.
, and
Pfahl
,
A.
, 2009, “
Heliostat and Process for Adjusting the Reflecting Surfaces of a Heliostat
,” European Patent No. EP1635128A3.
16.
GlassPoint Solar Inc., 2012, “Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR): GlassPoint, the Leader in Solar EOR,” accessed November 16,
2012
, http://www.glasspoint.com/
17.
BrightSource Limitless, 2012, “Image Downloads,” accessed June 28,
2012
, http://www.brightsourceenergy.com/image-downloads
18.
Childers
,
P.
, and
Blitz
,
J.
,
2009
, “
Multi-Axis Metamorphic Actuator and Drive System and Method
,” International Patent WO2009/108159A1.
19.
Utility Scale Solar Inc., 2011, “USS Homepage,” accessed November 16,
2012
, http://www.utilityscalesolar.com/Utility_Scale_Solar,_Inc./USS_Homepage.html
20.
Google,
2012
, “RE<C: Heliostat Frame Design,” accessed November 16, http://www.google.org/pdfs/google_heliostat_frame_design.pdf
21.
Pérez-Rábago
,
C.
,
González-Aguilar
,
J.
,
Prakash
,
R.
,
Sachan
,
S.
,
Goel
,
N.
, and
Romero
,
M.
,
2012
, “
Development and Optical Characterization of a Heliostat to be Used in Thermosolar Electric Stations in India
,”
SolarPACES 2012 Conference
,
Marrakesh, Morroco, September 11–14
.
22.
Arbogast
,
P. R.
,
1977
, “
Multiple Mirrored Apparatus Utilizing Solar Energy
,” U.S. Patent No. US4056313.
23.
Hilton
,
R. D.
,
1978
, “
Ganged Heliostat
,” U.S. Patent No. US4110010.
24.
Medina
,
O.
,
1989
, “
Unified Heliostat Array
,” U.S. Patent No. US4832002.
25.
Mills
,
D.
, and
Schramek
,
P.
,
2002
, “
Solar Energy Reflector Array
,” International Patent WO02/070966A1.
26.
Lee
,
S. H.
,
Lee
,
I. H.
,
Song
,
S. G.
, and
Cho
,
S. E.
,
2005
, “
Solar Tracking Apparatus in Which Rotatable Horizontal Shafts are Combined to Track Position of Sun
,” Korean Patent No. 1020050080114A.
27.
Amsbeck
,
L.
,
Buck
,
R.
,
Pfahl
,
A.
, and
Uhlig
,
R.
,
2008
, “
Optical Performance and Weight Estimation of a Heliostat With Ganged Facets
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
130
(
1
), p.
011010
.10.1115/1.2804630
28.
Chapman
,
I.
, and
Cyriax
,
P.
,
2010
, “
Modular Ganged Tracking for Heliostats
,”
SolarPACES 2010 Conference
,
Perpignan, France, September 21–24
.
29.
Winter
,
C.-J.
,
Sizmann
,
R. L.
, and
Vant-Hull
,
L. L.
,
1991
,
Solar Power Plants—Fundamentals, Technology, Systems, Economics
,
Springer-Verlag
,
Berlin
, Chap. 3.6.4.
30.
Sommer
,
W. T.
,
1982
, “
Central Receiver Solar Collector Using Mechanically Linked Mirrors
,” U.S. Patent No. Re. 30960, Reissue of US4102326.
31.
Wu
,
Z.
,
Gong
,
B.
,
Wang
,
Z.
,
Li
,
Z.
, and
Zang
,
C.
,
2010
, “
An Experimental and Numerical Study of the Gap Effect on Wind Load on Heliostat
,”
Renewable Energy
,
35
, pp.
797
806
.10.1016/j.renene.2009.09.009
32.
Romero
,
M.
,
Conejero
,
E.
, and
Sanchez
,
M.
,
1991
, “
Recent Experiences on Reflectant Module Components for Innovative Heliostats
,”
Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells
,
24
, pp.
320
332
.10.1016/0165-1633(91)90072-S
33.
Geyer
,
M.
,
Pitz-Paal
,
R.
,
Steinfeld
,
A.
, and
Tyner
,
C.
,
2002
, SolarPACES Annual Report 2001, IEA, p. 5.15.
34.
Huss
,
S.
,
2012
, “
Systems and Methods for Inserting Support Members into the Ground
,” International Patent, WO 2012/095785 A1.
35.
Pfahl
,
A.
,
Teufel
,
E.
,
Buck
,
R.
, and
Hölle
,
E.
,
2008
,
Entwicklung eines kostengünstigen Kleinheliostaten
,
DLR Sonnenkolloquium
,
Cologne, Germany
.
36.
Prosinečki
,
T. C.
, and
Schnatbaum
,
L.
,
2012
, “
Improvements in Solar Field Layout and Molten Salt Solar Tower System Design
,”
SolarPACES 2012 Conference
,
Marrakesh, Morocco, September 11–14
.
37.
CSIRO, 2010, “Sunny Future for Australia's Solar Industry,” ScienceImage, accessed June 28,
2012
, http://www.scienceimage.csiro.au/mediarelease/mr10-124.html
38.
Schramek
,
P.
,
Al-Ansary
,
H.
,
Jeter
,
S.
,
Abdel-Khalik
,
S.
,
Al-Suhaibani
,
Z.
,
El-Leathy
,
A.
,
Herzig
,
S.
, and
Gaines
,
G.
,
2011
, “
High Temperature Solar Gas Turbine Project—Design of Heliostat Field and Particle Receiver
,”
SolarPACES 2011 Conference
,
Granada, Spain, September 20–23
.
39.
Minick
,
A. B.
, and
Daniel
,
R.
,
2011
, “
Heliostat Joint
,” U.S. Patent No. US2011/0108019 A1.
40.
Buck
,
R.
,
Wurmhöringer
,
K.
,
Lehle
,
R.
,
Göttsche
,
J.
, and
Pfahl
,
A.
,
2010
, “
Development of a 30m2 Heliostat With Hydraulic Drive
,”
Proc. SolarPACES 2010 Conference
,
Perpignan, France, September 21–24
.
41.
Sankrithi
,
M.
,
2012
, “
Low-Cost Heliostatic Mirror With Protective Inflation Stabilizable Surface Element Means
,” U.S. Patent No. 8127760B2.
42.
Sunfolding, 2012, “Welcome to Sunfolding,” accessed Deecember 12,
2012
, http://www.sunfolding.otherlab.com/
43.
Deflandre
,
J.
,
Matarasso
,
P.
, and
Traisnel
,
J.-P.
,
1978
, “
Heliostats
,” U.S. Patent No. US4129360.
44.
Rabinowitz
,
M.
,
2010
, “
Solar Concentrator With Induced Dipole Alignment of Pivoted Mirrors
,” U.S. Patent No. US 2010/0326521 A1.
45.
Buck
,
R.
, and
Teufel
,
E.
,
2008
, “
Entwicklung von Mikrospiegelsystemen für Solarthermische Kraftwerke (Mikrohelix)—Optische Bewertung des Mikrohelix-Konzeptes
,” DLR-Endbericht, BMU-Projekt Förderkennzeichen 03UM0074
.
46.
Guardian,
2012
, “
EcoGuard Solar Boost-CFL—Concentrating Flat Laminated Mirrors
,” data sheet, accessed November 16, http://www.guardian.com/oracleprd/groups/guardiandotcom/documents/native/gi_013417.pdf
47.
Sallis
,
D. V.
,
1999
, “
Multi-Lever Rim-Drive Heliostat
,” U.S. Patent No. US4930493
.
48.
Chong
,
K. K.
,
2010
, “
Optical Analysis for Simplified Astigmatic Correction of Non-Imaging Focusing Heliostat
,”
Sol. Energy
,
84
, pp.
1356
1365
.10.1016/j.solener.2010.04.013
49.
Flesch
,
R.
,
2011
, “
Automatisierte Bestimmung der Heliostatausrichtung Mittels eines Hilfsspiegels
,” Diploma thesis, RWTH Aachen, DLR, Cologne, Germany.
50.
Berenguel
,
M.
,
Rubio
,
F. R.
,
Valverde
,
A.
,
Lara
,
P. J.
,
Arahal
,
M. R.
,
Camacho
,
E.F.
, and
López
,
M.
,
2004
, “
An Artificial Vision-Based Control System for Automatic Heliostat Positioning Offset Correction in a Central Receiver Solar Power Plant
,”
Sol. Energy
,
76
, pp.
563
575
.10.1016/j.solener.2003.12.006
51.
Stone
,
K. W.
,
1986
, “
Automatic Heliostat Track Alignment Method
,” U.S. Patent No. 4564275.
52.
Kribus
,
A.
,
Vishnevetsky
,
I.
,
Yogev
,
A.
, and
Rubinov
,
T.
,
2002
, “
Closed Loop Control of Heliostats
,”
SolarPACES 2002 Conference
,
Zürich
, September 4–6, pp.
559
565
.
53.
Koningstein
,
R.
,
Fitch
,
J. S.
,
Ricket
,
D. J.
, and
Mo
,
V.
,
2012
, “
Heliostat Control Scheme Using Cameras
,” U.S. Patent No. US2012/0174909 A1
.
54.
Reznik
,
D. S.
,
Azarchs
,
A. D.
,
Csaszar
,
A.
, and
Hartshorn
,
M. B.
,
2012
, “
Calibration and Tracking Control of Heliostats in a Central Tower Receiver Solar Power Plant
,” U.S. Patent No. US2012/0092491 A1
.
55.
Hines
,
B. E.
, and
Johnson
,
R. L.
,
2012
, “
Apparatus and Method for Pointing Light Sources
,” International Patent WO 2012/125751 A2
.
56.
Convery
,
M. R.
,
2011
, “
Closed-Loop Control for Power Tower Heliostats
,”
SolarPACES 2011 Conference
,
Granada, Spain, September 20–23
.
57.
Aiuchi
,
K.
,
Yoshida
,
K.
,
Onozaki
,
M.
,
Katayama
,
Y.
,
Nakamura
,
M.
, and
Nakamura
,
K.
,
2006
, “
Sensor-Controlled Heliostat With Equatorial Mount
,”
Sol. Energy
,
80
(
9
), pp.
1089
1097
.10.1016/j.solener.2005.10.007
58.
Muehe
,
A.
,
1997
, “
Selbstausrichtender Heliostat für Solar-Turmkraftwerke
,” German Patent No. DE19630201C1
.
59.
Noto
,
V. H.
,
1986
, “
Reflective Solar Tracking System
,” U.S. Patent No. US4586488
.
60.
Pfahl
,
A.
,
Buck
,
R.
, and
Rehschuh
,
K.
,
2008
, “
Method for Controlling the Orientation of a Heliostat on a Receiver, Heliostat Apparatus and Solar Power Plant
,” International Patent WO2008/058866A1
.
61.
Ho
,
C. K.
,
Ghanbari
,
C. M.
,
O'Neill
,
M. B.
, and
Yuan
,
J. K.
,
2011
, “
On-Sun Testing of a Heliostat Using Facets With Metallized Polymer Films
,”
SolarPACES 2011 Conference
,
Granada, Spain, September 20–23
.
62.
Jorgensen
,
G.
,
Gee
,
R.
, and
DiGrazia
,
M.
,
2010
, “
Development and Testing of Abrasion Resistant Hard Coats for Polymer Film Reflectors
,”
SolarPACES 2010 Conference
,
Perpignan, France, September 21–24
.
63.
LightManufacturing,
2012
, “
LightManufactoring H1 Heliostat
,” Data Sheet, accessed November 16, http://lightmanufacturingsystems.com/heliostats/
64.
Weinrebe
,
G.
,
2000
, “
Technische, ökologische und ökonomische Analyse von solarthermischen Turmkraftwerken
,” Ph.D. thesis, Institut für Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung, University Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.
65.
Sayre
,
R. K.
,
1980
, “
Heliostat Assemblies
,” U.S. Patent No. US4209231A
.
66.
Romeva
,
C. R.
,
Renom
,
A. P.
, and
Lecina
,
A. S.
,
2009
, “
Actuation Device Enabling the Relative Rotation of Structures and a Solar Tracker
,” International Patent WO2009/141468A1
.
67.
Baum
,
V. A.
,
Aparasi
,
R. R.
, and
Garf
,
B. A.
,
1957
, “
High-Power Solar Installations
,”
Sol. Energy
,
1
(
1
), pp.
6
12
.10.1016/0038-092X(57)90049-X
68.
Jones
,
D.
,
1982
, “
Heliostatic Solar Energy Conversion System
,” U.S. Patent No. US4365618
.
69.
Jones
,
D.
, and
Eibling
,
J. A.
,
1982
, “
Rotating Field Collector Subsystem Phase 1 Study and Evaluation
,” Alden E. Stilson & Associates, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, Report No. SAND82-8184.
70.
Stone
,
B. R.
,
Wyatt
,
C. M.
,
Hoekstra
,
K. H.
, and
Stone
,
S. J.
,
2011
, “
Rotating Disk Solar Concentrator Configuration
,”
SolarPACES 2011 Conference
,
Granada, Spain, September 20–23
.
71.
Bonelle
,
D.
,
2011
, “
Rotating a Heliostat Field Around a Tower to Track the Sun
,”
SolarPACES 2011 Conference
,
Granada, Spain, September 20–23
.
72.
Diver
,
R. B.
, and
Grossman
,
J. W.
,
1999
, “
Sandwich Construction Solar Structural Facets
,”
Proceedings of Renewable and Advanced Energy Systems for the 21st Century, ASME International Solar Energy Conference
,
Maui, HI, April 11–16, Paper No. SAND98-2845C
.
73.
Holze
,
C.
,
Brüggen
,
H.
,
Misseeuw
,
R.
,
Cosijns
,
B.
,
Albers
,
R.
,
Isaza
,
D.
,
Buck
, and
R.
,
Pfahl
,
A.
,
2012
, “
Laminated Solar Thin Glass Mirror Solution for Cost Effective CSP Systems
,”
SolarPACES 2012 Conference
,
Marrakesh, Morocco, September 11–14
.
74.
Google,
2012
, “
RE<C: Heliostat Reflector Design
,” accessed November 16, http://www.google.org/pdfs/google_heliostat_reflector_design.pdf
75.
Ricklin
,
P.
,
Smith
,
C.
, and
Rogers
,
D.
,
2011
, “
Current Status and Future Plans for eSolar's Small Heliostat Based Solar Collection System
,”
SolarPACES 2011 Conference
,
Granada, Spain, September 20–23
.
76.
Peterka
,
J. A.
,
Hosoya
,
N.
,
Bienkiewicz
,
B.
, and
Cermak
,
J. E.
,
1986
, “
Wind Load Reduction for Heliostats
,” Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO, Report No. SERI/STR-253-2859.
77.
Strachan
,
J. W.
, and
Houser
,
M. H.
,
1993
, “
Testing and Evaluation of Large-Area Heliostats for Solar Thermal Applications
,” Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, Report No. SAND92-1381
.
78.
Gong
,
B.
,
Li
,
Z.
,
Wang
,
Z.
, and
Wang
,
Y.
,
2012
, “
Wind Induced Dynamic Response of Heliostat
,”
Renewable Energy
,
38
(
1
), pp.
206
213
.10.1016/j.renene.2011.07.025
79.
Ulmer
,
S.
,
1998
, “
Influences of Cost Reduction Measures on the Beam Quality of a Large-Area Heliostat
,” Diploma thesis, IER, University Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.
80.
Bender
,
B.
,
Chalifoux
,
B.
, and
Schneider
,
D.
,
2011
, “
Suspension Heliostat Material Efficiency
,”
SolarPACES 2011 Conference
,
Granada, Spain, September 20–23
.
81.
Hardt
,
M.
,
Martínez
,
D.
,
González
,
A.
,
Garrido
,
C.
,
Aladren
,
S.
,
Villa
,
J. R.
, and
Saenz
,
J.
,
2011
, “
HECTOR—Heliostat Cleaning Team-Oriented Robot
,”
SolarPACES 2011 Conference
,
Granada, Spain, September 20–23
.
82.
Zaibel
,
R.
,
Dagan
,
E.
,
Karni
,
J.
, and
Ries
,
H.
,
1995
, “
An Astigmatism Corrected Target-Aligned Heliostat for High Concentration
,”
Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells
,
37
(
2
), pp.
191
202
.10.1016/0927-0248(94)00206-1
83.
Buck
,
R.
, and
Teufel
,
E.
,
2009
, “
Comparison and Optimization of Heliostat Canting Methods
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
131
(
1
), p.
011001
.10.1115/1.3027500
84.
Buck
,
B.
,
Pfahl
,
A.
, and
Roos
,
T. H.
,
2012
, “
Target-Aligned Heliostat Field Layout for Non-Flat Terrain
,”
Proceedings of 1st Southern African Solar Energy Conference
,
Stellenbosch, South Africa, May 21–23
.
85.
Peterka
,
J. A.
,
Tan
,
Z.
,
Cermak
,
J. E.
, and
Bienkiewicz
,
B.
,
1989
, “
Mean and Peak Wind Loads on Heliostats
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng.
,
111
, pp.
158
164
.10.1115/1.3268302
86.
Pfahl
,
A.
,
Buselmeier
,
M.
, and
Zaschke
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Determination of Wind Loads on Heliostats
,”
SolarPACES 2011 Conference
,
Granada, Spain, September 20–23
.
87.
Teufel
,
E.
,
Buck
,
R.
,
Pfahl
,
A.
,
Böing
,
G.
, and
Kunert
,
J.
,
2008
, “
Dimensioning of Heliostat Components Under Wind and Gravity Load: The Map Approach
,”
SolarPACES 2008 Conference
,
Las Vegas, NV, March 4–7
.
You do not currently have access to this content.