This paper compares hydrogen production by photovoltaic powered electrolysis of water at sea level and at low stratospheric altitudes up to 21 km. All the hydrogen production processes have been considered from catchable solar radiation to storage technologies. The evaluation has been performed for 1 m2 of flat horizontal plane. It has been considered the electric energy amount produced by considering the equilibrium temperature of photovoltaic (PV) modules and its evolution due to external temperature and solar radiation. Hydrogen production through electrolysis has been evaluated too. Two different methods of hydrogen storage have been evaluated: high pressure compression up to 20 MPa and the liquefaction process. The energetic cost of both production processes has been evaluated. The comparison is presented in terms of effective energy deliverable to final users considered in terms of HHV. This evaluation considers also, in the case of the liquefaction process the energy which can be recovered by the regasification process.

References

References
1.
Anzillotti
,
S.
,
2006
, “
Una piattaforma stratosferica per la produzione di idrogeno mediante energia fotovoltaica
,”
Tesi di Dottorato in Ingegneria della Gestione Industriale ed Integrazione tra imprese
,
Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia
,
XVIII ciclo
, Rel. A. Dumas.
2.
Dumas
,
A.
,
Anzillotti
,
S.
,
Trancossi
,
M.
, and
Zumbo
,
F.
,
2008
, “
P.S.I.C.H.E.: The Concept of a Stratospheric Airship for Energy Production, Telecommunications and Territorial Surveillance
,”
SAE 2008 Wichita Air Congress
,
Relation by Michele Trancossi
,
Wichita, KS
, Aug. 20–22.
3.
Dumas
,
A.
,
Anzillotti
,
S.
, and
Trancossi
,
M.
,
2008
, “
Available Solar Energy in Low Stratosphere
,”
II Congresso Nazionale AIGE
, Pisa,
4
5
Settembre.
4.
Dumas
,
A.
,
Anzillotti
,
S.
, and
Trancossi
,
M.
,
2008
, “
Photovoltaic Stratospheric Isle for Conversion in Hydrogen as Energy Vector
,”
II Congresso Nazionale AIGE
, Pisa,
4
5
Settembre.
5.
Dumas
,
A.
,
Trancossi
,
M.
, and
Anzillotti
,
S.
,
2010
, “
An Airship Design Methodology Based On Available Solar Energy In Low Stratosphere
,”
International Mechanical Engineering Congress And Exposition 2010
, Imece2010-38931, Vancouver, Canada, November 12–18.
6.
Dumas
,
A.
,
Anzillotti
,
S.
,
Madonia
,
M.
, and
Trancossi
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Effects of Altitude on Photovoltaic Production of Hydrogen
,”
ASME 2011 5th International Conference on Energy Sustainability
, Parts A, B, and C, Washington, DC, August 7–10.
7.
NASA Glenn Research Center
,
2010
, NASA Hearth Atmosphere Model, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, available at: http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/atmosmet.html
8.
ASHRAE
,
2009
,
Handbook of Fundamentals
,
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers
,
Atlanta, GA
.
9.
Knaupp
,
W.
, and
Mundschau
,
E.
,
2004
, “
Solar Electric Energy Supply at High Altitude
,”
Aerosp. Sci. Technol.
,
8
, pp.
245
254
.10.1016/j.ast.2003.12.001
10.
Knaupp
,
W.
, and
Mundschau
,
E.
,
2004
, “
Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Energy System for Stratospheric Platforms
,”
3rd World Conference on PV Energy Conversion
, Vol.
3
, Osaka, Japan, May 11–18, pp.
2143
2147
.
11.
Drummond
,
A. J.
,
Hickey
,
J. R.
,
Scholes
,
W. J.
, and
Laue
,
E. G.
,
1968
, “
New Value for the Solar Constant of Radiation
,”
Nature
,
218
, pp.
259
261
.10.1038/218259b0
12.
NREL
,
2012
, “Solar and Lunar Position Calculators,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC, available at: http://www.nrel.gov/midc/solpos
13.
Colozza
,
A.
,
2003
, “
Initial Feasibility Assessment of a High Altitude Long Endurance Airship
,” Report No. NASA/CR 2003-212724, available at: http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20040021326_2004003937.pdf
14.
U.S. National Research Council
,
2004
, “
The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs
,” http://www.nap.edu/books/0309091632/html
15.
American Physical Society
,
2004
, “
The Hydrogen Initiative Panel on Public Affairs
,” http://www.aps.org/
16.
Bossel
,
U.
,
Eliasson
,
B.
, and
Taylor
,
G.
,
2003
, “
The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?
,”
Proceedings of European Fuel Cell Forum
, http://www.efcf.com/reports/E02_Hydrogen_Economy_Report.pdf
17.
Bossel
,
U.
,
2006
, “
Does a Hydrogen Economy Make Sense?
,”
Proc. IEEE
,
94
(
10
), pp.
1826
1837
.10.1109/JPROC.2006.883715
18.
Haynes
,
W. M.
,
1961
,
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
,
Student 44th ed., Chem. Rubber Pub. Co.
,
Cleveland, OH
.
19.
Rifkin
,
J.
,
2002
,
The Hydrogen Economy
,
Tarcher
,
New York
.
20.
Schmidt
,
E.
,
1975
,
Technische Thermodynamik
, Vol.
1
,
11th
ed.,
Springer-Verlag
,
Berlin
, p.
287
.
21.
Quack
,
H.
,
Die Schlusselrolle der Kryotechnik in der Wasserstoff-Energiewirtschaft
,
TU Dresden
,
Dresden, Germany
, www.tu-dresden.de/mwiem/kkt/mitarbeiter/lib/wasserstoff/wassertech.html
22.
Gross
,
R.
,
Otto
,
W.
,
Patzelt
,
A.
, and
Wanner
,
M.
,
1994
, “
Flűssigwasserstoff fu¨r Europa
,” Berichte aus Technik und Wissenschaf, Linde-Anlage, Ingolstadt, pp.
0
71
.
24.
Matsuda
,
H.
, and
Nagami
,
M.
,
1997
,
Study of Large Hydrogen Liquefaction Process
,
Nippon Sanso Corp.
,
Kanagawa, Japan
, http://www.enaa.or.jp/WE-NET/ronbun/1997/e5/sanso1997.html
25.
Zhou
,
D.
, and
Sullivan
,
N. S.
,
2004
, “
Efficient Ortho Hydrogen to Para Hydrogen Conversion
,”
American Physical Society, March Meeting
, Mar. 22–26, Palais des Congres de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
26.
Burns
,
L. D.
,
McCormick
,
J. B.
, and
Borroni-Bird
,
C. E.
,
2002
, “
Vehicle of Change
,”
Sci. Am.
, October, pp.
64
73
.
27.
U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
,
2009
, “Compressed Hydrogen Cylinder Research and Testing in Accordance With FMVSS 304,” Final Report, Springfield VA, Report No. FMCSA-RRT-07-020, http://www.nhtsa.gov/DOT/NHTSA/NVS/Crashworthiness/Alternative%20Energy%20 Vehicle%20Systems%20Safety%20Research/811075.pdf
28.
Krainz
,
G.
,
Bartlok
,
G.
,
Bodner
,
P.
,
Casapicola
,
P.
,
Doeller
,
C.
,
Hofmeister
,
F.
,
Neubacher
,
E.
, and
Zieger
,
A.
,
2008
, “
Development of Automotive Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems
,”
StorHy Final Event
,
Paris
, June 3–4, http://www.storhy.net/pdf/CEC-ICMC_C4-B-02_2003-09-26.pdf
29.
Plachta
,
D.
, and
Kittel
,
P.
,
2003
, “
Propellant Storage Analysis Applied to Upper Stages or Depots in an LEO Environment
,” AIAA–2002–3589, NASA/TM—2003-211691, http://www.launchcomplexmodels.com/Public/DIRECT/Propellant%20Depot/20030067928_Zero_Boil-Off_Storage_for_Depots_in_ LEO.pdf
30.
Glaister
,
D. S.
,
Donabedian
,
M.
,
Curran
,
D. G. T.
, and
Davis
,
T.
,
1998
An Overview of the Performance and Maturity of Long Life Cryocoolers for Space Applications
,” The Aerospace Corp, El Segundo, Report No. TOR-98(1057)-3.
You do not currently have access to this content.