A solar tracker is a system for orienting solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors toward the sun. This paper presents a microcontroller based energy efficient hybrid automatic solar-tracking system with a view to assess the improvement in solar conversion efficiency. The two-axis solar-tracking system is constructed with both hardware and software implementations. The proposed tracking system uses a new solar position sensor with adaptive features. A comparative analysis was performed using four systems, i.e., hybrid tracking, dual-axis, single-axis, and stationary module. The results showed that the use of the dual-axis tracking system produced 18% gain of power output, compared with a single-axis tracking system. The gain of output power with the hybrid tracking system was much higher (54%) when compared with a stationary system inclined at 23.5 deg to the horizontal. Considering the state of the art of the technology, successful strategy, robust control philosophy, and the potential added benefit of this research work can be employed on a large scale in sustainable manner.

References

References
1.
Bull
,
S. R.
,
2001
, “
Renewable Energy Today and Tomorrow
,”
IEEE Proc.
,
89
(
8
), pp.
1216
1226
.10.1109/5.940290
2.
Rahman
,
S.
,
2003
, “
Green Power: What Is It and Where Can We Find It?
,”
IEEE Power Energy Mag.
,
1
(
1
), pp.
30
37
.10.1109/MPAE.2003.1180358
3.
Pritchard
,
D. A.
,
1983
, “
Sun Tracking by Peak Power Positioning for Photovoltaic Concentrator Arrays
,”
IEEE Control Syst. Mag.
,
3
(
3
), pp.
2
8
.10.1109/MCS.1983.1104767
4.
Konar
,
A.
, and
Mandal
,
A. K.
,
1991
, “
Microprocessor Based Automatic Sun Tracker
,”
IEEE Proc. Sci.
, Meas. Technol.,
138
(
4
), pp.
237
241
.
5.
Popat
,
P. P.
,
1998
, “
Autonomous, Low-Cost, Automatic Window Covering System for Daylighting Applications
,”
Renewable Energy
,
13
(
1
), p.
146
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-1481(97)83363-0.
6.
Berenguel
,
M.
,
Rubio
,
F. R.
,
Valverde
,
A.
,
Lara
,
P. J.
,
Arahal
,
M. R.
,
Camacho
,
E. F.
, and
López
,
M.
,
2004
, “
An Artificial Vision-Based Control System for Automatic Heliostat Positioning Offset Correction in a Central Receiver Solar Power Plant
,”
Sol. Energy
,
76
(
5
), pp.
563
575
.10.1016/j.solener.2003.12.006
7.
Phang
,
J. C. H.
,
Chan
,
D. S. H.
, and
Philips
,
J. R.
,
1984
, “
Accurate Analytical Method for the Extraction of Solar Cell Model Parameters
,”
Electron. Lett.
20
(
10
), pp.
406
408
.10.1049/el:19840281
8.
Asiful Islam
,
Md.
,
Mohammad
,
N.
, and
Shadhu Khan
,
P. K.
,
2010
, “
Modeling and Performance Analysis of a Generalized Photovoltaic Array in matlab
,”
Joint International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems
(PEDES)
and 2010 Power India, New Delhi,
India
, December 20–23http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PEDES.2010.5712463.
9.
Krachong
,
S.
,
Natwichai
,
J.
,
Inchaiwong, L., Wattanasirichaigoon
,
S.
, and
Noimanee
,
S.
,
2008
, “
High Efficiency Solar Tracking System for Cardiac Care Unit
,”. The 3rd International Symposium on Biomedical Engineering (ISBME 2008), Bangkok, Thailand, November 10–11, pp. 466–469, available at: http://www.kmitl.ac.th/ijabme/proceedings/bmeicon08/pdf/All_paper/1036.pdf
10.
Khan
,
M. F.
, and
Ali
,
R. L.
,
2005
, “
Automatic Sun Tracking System
,”
presented at the All Pakistan Engineering Conference
,
Islamabad, Pakistan
, November 18–20.
11.
Messenger
,
R.
, and
Ventre
,
J.
,
1999
,
Photovoltaic System Engineering
,
2nd ed.
,
CRC Press
,
FL
.
12.
Koyuncu
,
B.
, and
Balasubramanian
,
K.
,
1991
, “
A Microprocessor Controlled Automatic Sun Tracker
,”
IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron.
,
37
(
4
), pp.
913
917
.10.1109/30.106958
13.
Garrison
,
J. D.
,
2002
, “
A Program for Calculation of Solar Energy Collection by Fixed and Tracking Collectors
,”
Sol. Energy
,
72
(
4
), pp.
241
255
.10.1016/S0038-092X(02)00066-X
14.
Sarker
,
M. R. I.
,
Pervez
,
M. R.
, and
Beg
,
R. A.
, 2010, “
Design Fabrication and Experimental Study of a Novel Two-Axis Sun Tracker
,”
Int. J. Mech. Mechatron. Eng.
,
10
(
1
), pp. 13–18http://www.ijens.org/105501-3939%20IJMME-IJENS.pdf.
You do not currently have access to this content.