The feasibility to produce hydrogen in the $Sn–H2O/SnO2–C$ thermochemical water splitting redox process depends mainly on the efficiency of the tin hydrolysis step, which has not been studied adequately so far, while the cassererite carboreduction is implemented by industry for tin production. The present work deals with the hydrolysis of different kinds of tin powders at different experimental conditions at moderate temperature range $180–620°C$. In spite of the fact that the rate of hydrogen production is lower compared with other metals, e.g., zinc, at the same reactor temperature, high conversion level was obtained in a controllable reaction. Consequently, tin can be a relevant candidate for solar hydrogen production considering the advantage of significant lower temperatures required for the solar carboreduction of its oxide.

1.
,
R.
, and
Sohn
,
H. Y.
, 1979, “
The Reduction of Stannic Oxide With Carbon
,”
Metall. Mater. Trans. B
0360-2141,
10B
, pp.
109
115
.
2.
Mitchel
,
A. R.
, and
Parker
,
R. H.
, 1988, “
The Reduction of SnO2 and Fe2O3 by Solid Carbon
,”
Mater. Des.
,
1
(
1
), pp.
53
66
. 0261-3069
3.
,
G. S.
,
Clauser
,
H. R.
, and
Vaccari
,
J. A.
, 1997,
Materials Handbook
,
14th ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
4.
Aoki
,
A.
,
Ohtake
,
H.
,
Shimizu
,
T.
,
Kitayama
,
Y.
, and
Kodama
,
T.
, 2000, “
Reactive Metal-Oxide Redox System for Two-Step Thermochemical Conversion of Coal and Water to CO and H2
,”
Energy
0360-5442,
25
, pp.
201
218
.
5.
Kinding
,
J. K.
,
Odle
,
R. R.
,
Weyand
,
T. E.
, and
Davis
,
B. R.
, 2004, “
Method for Production of Hydrogen Gas
,” U.S. Patent No. 6,682,714 B2.
6.
Forster
,
M.
, 2004, “
Theoretical Investigation of the System SnOx/Sn for the Thermochemical Storage of Solar Energy
,”
Energy
,
29
, pp.
789
799
. 0360-5442
7.
Vishnevetsky
,
I.
,
Epstein
,
M.
,
Abu-Hamed
,
T.
, and
Karni
,
J.
, 2008, “
Boron Hydrolysis at Moderate Temperature—First Step to Solar Fuel Cycle for Transportation
,”
ASME J. Sol. Energy Eng.
0199-6231,
130
, p.
014506
.
8.
Vishnevetsky
,
I.
, and
Epstein
,
M.
, 2007, “
Production of Hydrogen From Solar Zinc in Steam Atmosphere
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
0360-3199,
32
, pp.
2791
2802
.