Double stall causes more than one power level when stall-regulated wind turbines operate in stall. This involves significant uncertainty on power production and loads. To avoid double stall, a new leading edge was designed for the NACA airfoil, an airfoil that is often used in the tip region of wind turbines. A numerical optimization tool incorporating XFOIL was used with a special formulation for the airfoil leading edge shape. The EllipSys2D CFD code was used to analyze the modified airfoil. In theory and in wind tunnel tests, the modified airfoil showed smooth and stable stall characteristics with no tendency to double stall. Also, both theory and wind tunnel tests showed that the overall aerodynamic characteristics were similar to NACA except for an increase in the lift-drag ratio below maximum lift and an increase in maximum lift. The wind tunnel tests showed that dynamic stall and aerodynamic damping characteristics for the modified airfoil and the NACA airfoil were the same. The modified airfoil with leading edge roughness in general had better characteristics compared with the NACA airfoil.
Modification of the NACA Leading Edge for Better Aerodynamic Performance
Contributed to the Solar Energy Division of the THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS for publication in the ASME JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the ASME Solar Energy Division, June 2001; final revision, May 2002. Associate Editor: D. Berg.
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Bak, C., and Fuglsang, P. (November 8, 2002). "Modification of the NACA Leading Edge for Better Aerodynamic Performance ." ASME. J. Sol. Energy Eng. November 2002; 124(4): 327–334. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1506324
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