This paper analyzes the irreversibilities due to the heat transfer processes in a latent heat thermal storage system. The Thermal Storage Module (TSM) consists of a cylindrical shell that surrounds an internal coaxial tube. The shell side is filled by a Phase Change Material (PCM); a fluid flows through the inner tube and exchanges heat along the way. The most fundamental assumption underlying this study is that the exergy of the hot fluid stream in the active phase is discharged into the environment and completely destroyed, unless it is partially intercepted by the storage system. A numerical study is conducted to identify and to minimize the thermodynamic losses of the storage and removal processes. The dependence of the second-law efficiency of the system on various design parameters is investigated and discussed.

1.
Adebiyi
G. A.
,
1991
, “
A Second-Law Study on Packed Bed Energy Storage Systems Utilizing Phase-Change Materials
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING
, Vol.
113
, pp.
146
156
.
2.
Bejan
A.
,
1978
,“
Two Thermodynamic Optima in the Design of Sensible Heat Units for Energy Storage
,”
ASME Journal of Heat Transfer
, Vol.
100
, pp.
708
712
.
3.
Bejan, A., 1982, Entropy Generation through Heat and Fluid Flow, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
4.
Bejan
A.
,
1987
, “
The Thermodynamic Design of Heat and Mass Transfer Processes and Devices
,”
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow
, Vol.
8
, pp.
258
276
.
5.
Bejan, A., 1988, Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
6.
Bellecci
C.
, and
Conti
M.
,
1993
, “
Transient Behaviour Analysis of a Latent Heat Thermal Storage Module
,”
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
, Vol.
36
, pp.
3851
3857
.
7.
Bellecci
C.
, and
Conti
M.
,
1994
, “
Phase Change Energy Storage: Entropy Production, Irreversibility, and Second-Law Efficiency
,”
Solar Energy
, Vol.
53
, pp.
163
170
.
8.
Bjurstrom
H.
, and
Carlsson
B.
,
1985
, “
An Exergy Analysis of Sensible and Latent Heat Storage
,”
Heat Recovery Systems
, Vol.
5
, pp.
233
250
.
9.
Charach
Ch.
, and
Zemel
A.
,
1992
, “
Thermodynamic Analysis of Latent Heat Storage in a Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING
, Vol.
114
, pp.
93
99
.
10.
Charach
Ch.
,
1993
, “
Second-Law Efficiency of an Energy Storage-Removal Cycle in a Phase-Change Material Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING
, Vol.
115
, pp.
240
243
.
11.
Charach, Ch., Conti, M., and Bellecci, C, 1995, “Thermodynamics of Phase Change Storage in Series with a Heat Engine,” ASME JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING, to be published.
12.
Chen
Ching-Jen
, and
Chiou
Jenq Shing
,
1981
, “
Laminar and Turbulent Heat Transfer in the Pipe Entrance Region for Liquid Metals
,”
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
, Vol.
24
, pp.
1179
1184
.
13.
Civan
F.
, and
Sliepcevich
C. M.
,
1984
, “
Efficient Numerical Solution for Enthalpy Formulation of Conduction Heat Transfer with Phase Change
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
, Vol.
27
, pp.
1428
1430
.
14.
De Lucia
M.
, and
Bejan
A.
,
1990
, “
Thermodynamics of Energy Storage by Melting Due to Conduction and Natural Convection
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING
, Vol.
112
, pp.
110
116
.
15.
De Lucia
M.
, and
Bejan
A.
,
1991
, “
Thermodynamics of Phase-Change Energy Storage; The Effects of Liquid Superheating During Melting and Irreversibility During Solidification
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING
, Vol.
113
, pp.
2
10
.
16.
Glansdorff, P., and Prigogine, I., 1980, Thermodynamics of Structure, Stability and Fluctuations, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
17.
Krane
R. J.
,
1987
, “
A Second Law Analysis of the Optimum Design and Operation of Thermal Energy Storage Systems
,”
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
, Vol.
30
, pp.
43
57
.
18.
Kerslake
T. W.
, and
Ibrahim
M. B.
,
1993
, “
Analysis of Thermal Energy Storage Material with Change-of-Phase Volumetric Effects
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING
, Vol.
115
, pp.
22
31
.
19.
Patankar, V., 1980, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere Publishing, Washington, D.C.
20.
Saxena
S.
,
Subrahmaniyam
S.
, and
Sarkar
M. K.
,
1982
, “
A Preliminary Model for Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage in a Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
,”
Solar Energy
, Vol.
29
, pp.
257
263
.
21.
Shamsundar
N.
,
1982
, “
Formulae for Freezing Outside a Circular Tube with Axial Variation of Coolant Temperature
,”
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
, Vol.
25
, pp.
1614
1618
.
22.
Solomon, A. D., Morris, M. D., Martin, J., and Olzewsky, M., 1986, “The Development of a Simulation Code for a Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage System in a Space Station,” Oak Ridge Nat. Lab. Report ORNL-6213.
23.
Strumpf
H. J.
, and
Coombs
M. G.
,
1990
, “
Solar Receiver Experiment for the Space Station FREEDOM Brayton Engine
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF SOLAR ENERGY ENGINEERING
, Vol.
113
, pp.
12
18
.
24.
Weingartner, S., and Blumenberg, J., 1990, “Ceramic Materials for Space Station’s Heat of Fusion Thermal Energy Storage,” 41st Congress of the International Astronautical Federation, Dresden, Germany, Oct.6–12, IAF-90-221.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.