Equations and parameter characteristics were examined for both closed and open-earth loops. Analysis and graphs are presented on the heat exchange effectiveness of air and liquid earth loops and how the heat transfer is affected by major parameters such as: pipe diameter, soil thermal conductivity, fluid velocity, and fluid type. The open loop will produce more heat per unit length of pipe while the closed produces more total system heat. However, final loop selection is based on many factors that are both site and system specific.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.