A survey of the stratified thermal storage tank one-dimensional models available in the literature has been conducted. Six of these models were tested and compared against the experimental data obtained at our laboratories and from the literature. Although various factors affecting the performance of a stratified tank can be accounted for by the higher order models, i.e. two- and three-dimensional models, the introduction of empirically-based mixing parameters into the one-dimensional models renders them widely applicable and practical in the simulation of energy systems incorporating thermal storage tanks.

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