An in-line deposition system for fabricating all-sputtered CuInSe2/CdS heterojunctions has been designed and fabricated. The system uses planar magnetron sputtering sources driven with direct currents. The apparatus consists of a vacuum interlock and four processing chambers. A vertically mounted frame containing four 25 mm × 25 mm substrates is introduced through a vacuum interlock and positioned at stationary deposition stations within each of the four processing chambers. One chamber is configured for depositing a metal base electrode. A second chamber contains a station for depositing CuInSe2 by reactive cosputtering from Cu and In sources in an H2Se-Ar atmosphere. The final two chambers are configured for depositing a CdS layer consisting of two sublayers such, for example, as (CdZn)S and In-doped CdS which are deposited by reactive sputtering from Cd-alloy targets in an H2S-AR atmosphere. The CuInSe2 deposition chamber is isolated from the base electrode and CdS deposition chambers by gate valves to minimize cross contamination. The system has now been operated for over a year with more than three hundred deposition runs having been made, using primarily the CuInSe2 deposition chamber. Solar cells with efficiencies up to 6 percent have been fabricated from reactive sputtered CuInSe2 layers deposited using the apparatus. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design and operation of the system.

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