Large scale field experiments in aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) were conducted between September, 1976, and November, 1982. Volumes of 7,700 m3, 54,800 m3, 58,000 m3, 24,400 m3, 58,000 m3, and 58,680 m3 were injected at average temperatures of 35.0° C, 55.0° C, 55.0° C, 58.5° C, 81.0° C, and 79.0° C, respectively, in an aquifer with ambient temperature of 20.0° C. Based on recovery volumes equal to the injection volumes, the respective energy recovery efficiencies were 69, 65, 74, 56, 45, and 42 percent. Primary factors in reduction of efficiency were aquifer nonhomogeneity and especially convection due to buoyancy of the injection volumes.

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