This paper develops theoretical models to predict the radiation of low-frequency and impulsive sound from horizontal-axis wind turbines due to three sources: (i) steady blade loads, (ii) unsteady blade loads due to operation in a ground shear, (iii) unsteady loads felt by the blades as they cross the tower wake. These models are then used to predict the acoustic output of MOD-I, the large wind turbine operated near Boone, N. C. Predicted acoustic time signals are compared to those actually measured near MOD-I; good agreement is obtained.

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