Understanding the relationships between structures and functions is important for engineering design in general and for biomimetic design specifically. In nature, different structures provide a wide range of functions efficiently and with minimal costs. Based on the analyses of 140 biological systems that are derived from biomimetic sources by a TRIZ based method, we provide a list and examples of structure–function patterns that repeat in biomimetic applications. These patterns are presented through a technical lens and a complete system model, serving as engines or brakes of the biological system, exploiting energy sources or blocking them, respectively. This list of patterns serves as an index of clues that open doors for further investigation of the complexity of these relations. Understanding the mechanisms behind these meta-level patterns is required for a successful biomimetic design process. The list provides both keywords for biological databases search and clues for abstraction of biological texts. The TRIZ based method that has been used for this study can be further used for modeling other biological systems during the abstraction stage of the biomimetic design process. Thus, we offer a bridge between biology and technology and set a foundation for a new biomimetic design method.