Medical models are physical models of human or animal anatomical structures such as skull and heart. Such models are used in simulation and planning of complex surgeries. They can also be utilized for anatomy teaching in medical curriculum. Traditionally, medical models are fabricated by paraffin wax or silicone casting. However, this method is time-consuming, of low quality, and not suitable for personalization. Recently, 3D printing technologies are used to fabricate medical models. Various applications of 3D printed medical models in surgeries and anatomy teaching have been reported, and their advantages over traditional medical models have been well-documented. However, 3D printing of medical models bears some special challenges compared to industrial applications of 3D printing. This paper reviews more than 50 publications on 3D printing of medical models between 2006 and 2016, and discusses knowledge gaps and potential research directions in this field.