In this paper, a 3-DOF 3-PRUR parallel mechanism (PM) is chosen for performance analysis and optimal design. First, the mobility of the PM is analyzed by using screw theory. Then, the kinematics of this PM is studied based on the geometrical characteristics and the Jacobian matrix is derived. Furthermore, we research some performance indices with respect to the Jacobian matrix over the whole workspace and nondimensional parameters when the input is given, and their performance atlases are obtained with different inputs. Finally, the optimal design of the PM is determined according to the performance atlases, and some examples are presented.