This work reports on the performance enhancement of a real-scale hydraulic system consisting of diamondlike-carbon (DLC)-coated components in combination with biodegradable oil in long-term experiments under conditions simulating those in an actual application. The performance of a hydraulic axial piston pump with DLC-coated piston shoes was evaluated in a newly designed, dedicated hydraulic test system using fully formulated biodegradable, synthetic ester oil. For comparison, an equal but separated hydraulic system with a conventional commercial pump and stainless-steel shoe surfaces was tested. The tests were run at 85% of the maximum pump load and an oil temperature of around 80 ° C for a period of 2000 h , which corresponds to more than 1 yr of continuous 8 h ∕ day operation in an application. A major abrupt oxidation-induced degradation of the oil did not occur in either system; however, the oil from the system comprising the DLC-coated shoes showed noticeably and consistently better results. The wear of the DLC-coated shoes, especially during the running in, was much lower than that in the conventional steel system. Only minor polishing wear was observed on the DLC shoe’s sliding surfaces during the test period, while on the steel shoe’s surfaces, many scratches were found and some erosion of the edges was detected.