Phosphor thermometry is applied for the first time in a large-bore two-stroke diesel engine. The work proves the practicality of phosphor thermometry in large-bore engines. The experiments were conducted on the MAN 4T50ME-X marine research engine equipped with an optical cylinder head. By employing a thin surface coating of CdWO 4 phosphor, cycle resolved temperature measurements of the cylinder wall were obtained. Motored and fired engine operations were tested at engine loads covering the low and medium engine load range. Phosphor thermometry proved to be successful in retrieving the temperature with standard deviations ranging around 1–8 K. Experimental considerations like detector linearity, coating thickness and an automated phosphor calibration routine will be addressed.