Adding advanced safety features (e.g., airbags) to restraint systems in tactical vehicles could decrease the injury risk of their occupants. The impact of frontal crashes on the occupants has been assessed recently through experimental data and finite element (FE) models. However, the number of such experiments is relatively small due to high cost. In this paper, we conduct an uncertainty study to infer the advantage of including advanced safety features, if a larger number of experiments were possible. We introduce the concept of group injury risk distribution that allows us to quantify under uncertainty the injury risk associated with advanced safety features, while averaging out the effect of uncontrollable factors such as body size. Statistically, the group injury risk distribution is a mixture of individual injury risk distributions of design conditions in the group. We infer that advanced safety features have the potential to reduce substantially injury risk in frontal crashes.

References

References
1.
Forman
,
J.
,
Lopez-Valdes
,
F.
,
Lessley
,
D.
,
Kindig
,
M.
,
Kent
,
R.
,
Ridella
,
S.
, and
Bostrom
,
O.
,
2009
, “
Rear Seat Occupant Safety: An Investigation of the Progressive Force-Limiting, Pretensioning 3-Point Belt System Using Adult PMHS in Frontal Sled Tests
,”
Stapp Car Crash J.
,
53
, pp.
49
74
.https://www.sae.org/publications/technical-papers/content/2009-22-0002/
2.
Hu
,
J.
,
Fischer
,
K.
,
Lange
,
P.
, and
Adler
,
A.
,
2015
, “
Effects of Crash Pulse, Impact Angle, Occupant Size, Front Seat Location, and Restraint System on Rear Seat Occupant Protection
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2015-01-1453.
3.
Newberry
,
W.
,
Lai
,
W.
,
Carhart
,
M.
,
Richards
,
D.
,
Brown
,
J.
, and
Raasch
,
C.
,
2006
, “
Modeling the Effects of Seat Belt Pretensioners on Occupant Kinematics During Rollover
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2006-01-0246.
4.
Harris
,
R.
,
Griffin
,
L.
,
Hayda
,
R.
,
Roundtree
,
M.
,
Bryant
,
R.
,
Rossiter
,
N.
, and
Mannion, S.
,
1999
, “
The Effects of Antipersonnel Blast Mines of the Lower Extremity
,” International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury Conference (
IRCOBI Conference
), Sitges, Spain, Sept. 23–24, pp.
457
467
.http://www.ircobi.org/wordpress/downloads/irc1999/pdf_files/1999_33.pdf
5.
Grujicic
,
M.
,
Bell
,
W. C.
,
Pandurangan
,
B.
, and
Glomski
,
P. S.
,
2011
, “
Fluid/Structure Interaction Computational Investigation of Blast-Wave Mitigation Efficacy of the Advanced Combat Helmet
,”
J. Mater. Eng. Perform.
,
20
(
6
), pp.
877
893
.
6.
Hu
,
J.
,
Orton
,
N.
,
Chen
,
C.
,
Rupp
,
J.
,
Reed
,
M.
,
Gruber
,
R.
, and
Scherer
,
R.
,
2016
, “
Optimizing Occupant Restraint Systems for Tactical Vehicles in Frontal Crashes
,”
NDIA Ground Vehicle Systems Engineering and Technology Symposium, Modeling & Simulation, Testing and Validation (MSTV) Technical Session
, Novi, MI, Aug. 2–4.
7.
Drignei
,
D.
,
Mourelatos
,
Z.
,
Kosova
,
E.
,
Hu
,
J.
,
Reed
,
M.
,
Rupp
,
J.
,
Gruber
,
R.
, and
Scherer
,
R.
,
2016
, “
Uncertainty Assessment in Restraint System Optimization for Occupants of Tactical Vehicles
,”
SAE Int. J. Mater. Manuf.
,
9
(
2
), pp.
436
443
.
8.
Reed
,
M.
, and
Ebert
,
S.
,
2013
, “
The Seated Soldier Study: Posture and Body Shape in Vehicle Seats
,” UMTRI, Ann Arbor, MI, Report No.
UMTRI-2013-13
.https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/109725
9.
NHTSA
,
2008
, “
Consumer Information, New Car Assessment Program
,” Federal Register, Part II, Vol. 73, No. 134, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC.
10.
Everitt
,
B.
, and
Hand
,
D.
,
1981
,
Finite Mixture Distributions
,
Chapman and Hall
, New York.
11.
Johnson
,
N. L.
,
Kotz
,
S.
, and
Balakrishnan
,
N.
,
1994
,
Continuous Univariate Distributions
,
2nd ed.
, Vol.
1
,
Wiley
, New York.
12.
Rizzo
,
M.
,
2007
,
Statistical Computing With R
,
Chapman and Hall
, Boca Raton, FL.
13.
Higgins
,
J. J.
,
2004
,
Introduction to Modern Nonparametric Statistics
,
Cengage
, Boston, MA.
14.
Zaseck
,
L. W.
,
Orton
,
N. R.
,
Gruber
,
R.
,
Rupp
,
J.
,
Scherer
,
R.
,
Reed
,
M.
, and
Hu
,
J.
,
2017
, “
The Influence of Personal Protection Equipment, Occupant Body Size, and Restraint System on the Frontal Impact Responses of Hybrid III ATDs in Tactical Vehicles
,”
Traffic Inj. Prev.
,
18
(6), pp. 642–649.
15.
Everitt
,
B.
,
Landau
,
S.
,
Leese
,
M.
, and
Stahl
,
D.
,
2011
,
Cluster Analysis
,
5th ed.
,
Wiley
, Chichester, UK.
You do not currently have access to this content.