In the companion paper (Ayyub et al., 2016, “Risk Assessment Methodology for Electric-Current Induced Drowning Accidents,” ASCE-ASME J. Risk Uncertainty Eng. Syst. Part B Mech. Eng., 3(3), pp. XXX-XXX.), the authors developed a methodology to identify hazards associated with electric-current-induced drowning and electric shocks for swimmers around docks, houseboats, and other boats in both freshwater and saltwater; and to assess scenarios and risks associated with these hazards. This paper presents numerical simulations of the electric field and potential in the surrounding water for a number of these electric-current-induced drowning accident scenarios in support of boating safety studies. A boundary-element-based computational tool was employed. A combined experimental and numerical validation study was first undertaken. The tool was then used to compute the electric field and potential in the fluid surrounding the boat with and without a person in the surrounding field for four accident scenarios, including two scenarios with boat at dock in freshwater or saltwater; and two scenarios with boat offshore in freshwater or saltwater. Parametric studies were also undertaken, giving consideration to parameters such as the location of the human with respect to the boat and dock; nature of the water body (freshwater or saltwater); and intensity of the applied current (i.e., at source); and to establish general trends of electric potential and electric field due to the presence of an electric power source in water. The observations from the parametric study are useful for developing information for communicating these risks to swimmers, first responders, boat owners and operators, marina and boatyard owners, and other persons in the vicinity of boats.

References

References
1.
Ayyub
,
B. M.
,
Koko
,
T. S
,
Blair
,
A.
, and
Akpan
,
U. O.
,
2016
, “
Risk Assessment Methodology for Electric-Current Induced Drowning Accidents
,”
ASCE-ASME J. Risk Uncertainty Eng. Syst. Part B Mech. Eng.
,
3
(
3
), pp.
XXX
XXX
.
2.
Chuang
,
J.-M.
,
1986
, “
Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Boundary-Value Problems Arising in Corrosion and Electroplating Modeling With Applications to 3D Ships and Marine Structures
,” Ph.D. Thesis,
Technical University of Nova Scotia
, Halifax, NS, Canada.
3.
Becker
,
A. A.
,
1992
,
The Boundary Element Method in Engineering: A Complete Course
,
McGraw-Hill International
,
UK
.
4.
Adey
,
R. A.
, and
Niku
,
S. M.
,
1992
,
Computer Modeling of Corrosion Using the Boundary Element Method
, ASTM STP 1154,
R. S.
Munn
,
ed.,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia, PA
, pp.
248
264
.
5.
DeGiorgi
,
V. G.
,
Thomas
, II,
E. D.
, and
Kaznoff
,
A. I.
,
1992
,
Numerical Simulation of Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Using Boundary Element Method
, ASTM STP 1154,
R. S.
Munn
,
ed.,
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
Philadelphia, PA
, pp.
265
276
.
6.
Adey
,
R.
, and
Baynham
,
J.
,
2000
, “
Predicting Corrosion Related Electrical and Magnetic Fields using BEM
,”
UDT Europe
.
7.
Wallace
,
J. C.
,
Brennan
,
D. P.
, and
Chernuka
,
M. W.
,
1997
, “
Enhancements to Boundary Element Cathodic Protection Simulation Software
,” Martec Contract Report.
8.
Wallace
,
J. C.
,
Brennan
,
D. P.
,
Palmeter
,
M. F.
, and
Chernuka
,
M. W.
,
1994
, “
CPBEM Program Suite for the Design of Cathodic Protection Systems for Ships
,” .
9.
Zienkiewicz
,
O. C.
, and
Taylor
,
R. L.
,
1989
,
The Finite Element Method, (Basic Formulations and Linear Problems, Vol. 1)
,
McGraw-Hill Book Company
,
London, UK
.
10.
Lee
,
C. H.
, and
Sakis-Meliopoulos
,
A. P.
,
1999
, “
Comparison of Touch and Step Voltages Between IEEE Std 80 and IEC 479-1
,”
IEE Proc. Gener. Transm. Distrib.
,
146
(
5
), pp.
593
601
. 0143-7046
You do not currently have access to this content.