Abstract

Cracks and corrosion in pipelines can occur simultaneously, representing a hybrid defect known as cracks in corrosion (CIC), which is often difficult to model using the available assessment codes or methods. As a result, detailed modeling of CIC has not been studied extensively. In this study, the extended finite element method (XFEM) has been applied to predict the failure pressures of CIC defects in API 5L Grade X42 and X52 pipes. The pipes were only subjected to internal pressure and the XFEM models were validated using full-scale burst tests available in the literature. Several CIC models with constant total defect depths (55%, and 60% of wall thickness) were constructed to investigate the effect of the initial crack depth on the failure pressure. The failure criterion was defined when wall penetration occurred due to crack growth, i.e., the instance the crack reached the innermost element of the pipe wall mesh. It was observed that for shorter cracks, the failure pressure decreased with the increase of the initial crack depth. The results indicated that the CIC defect could be treated as crack-only defects when the initial crack depth exceeded 50% of the total defect depth. However, for longer cracks, the initial crack depth was found to have a negligible effect on the failure pressure, implying that the CIC defect could be treated as either a crack or a corrosion utilizing the available assessment methods.

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