Differential longitudinal thermal expansion between the shell and the tube bundle is a well known problem in fixed tubesheet heat exchanger design. An expansion bellows provide flexibility for thermal expansion and also function as a pressure retaining part. In this paper, guidelines for design of flanged and flued type (thick wall) expansion bellows available in international codes and standards including ASME VIII-1 & 2, EN-13445, TEMA and EJMA codes are presented. These codes and standards are compared in terms of information available for thick wall expansion bellows design with regards to condition of applicability of design formula, spring rate determination, parameter to define the initial geometry, stress determination and fatigue evaluation. Inherent limitations of these codes with respect to expansion bellows design, research gape and recommendations for effective design are also presented in this paper. Brief history and information provided in various codes and standards related to unreinforced thin wall expansion bellows (bellows expansion joints) are also presented to understand evaluation of expansion bellows design.

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