Analytical models are developed for calculating temperatures, stresses and distortions resulting from the welding process. The models are implemented in finite element formulations and applied to a longitudinal butt weld. Nonuniform temperature transients are shown to result in the characteristic transverse bending distortions. Residual stresses are greatest in the weld metal and heat-affected zones, while the accumulated plastic strain is maximum at the interface of these two zones on the underside of the weldment.

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