To investigate the failure behavior of piping systems under severe seismic loads considering beyond design basis event (BDBE), an experimental approach to use pipes made of simulation materials was applied. “Simulation material” means the substitute material for steel to realize the structural experiment by the existing testing facilities. The simulation materials adopted in this study were pure lead (Pb) or lead-antimony (Pb-Sb) alloy. Using pipe elbows made of simulation materials, static loading tests on elbows and shaking table tests on simple piping system models composed of one or two elbows and an additional mass were conducted. From the static loading tests, the load–deflection relationship of an elbow under monotonic loading was obtained as well as the fatigue failure modes under cyclic loading depending on the several cyclic displacement levels. From the shaking table tests, several failure modes were obtained, namely, “collapse by self-weight,” “collapse by a few cycles of input,” “ratchet and subsequent collapse,” “overall deformation,” and “no failure.” It was considered that the occurrence of these failure modes was affected by the ratio of the input frequency to the specimen's natural frequency, the ratio of additional mass weight to the limit mass weight, the configuration of the specimen, and the input acceleration level. The experimental results indicated that it was crucial to understand the structure's ultimate behavior when treating BDBE, and that the research approach using simulation material is effective to investigate the ultimate behavior of piping systems.