Gray cast iron has been used as a component in various mechanical parts, such as the blocks and heads of automobile and marine engines, cylinder liners for internal combustion engines, and machine tool bases. It is desirable because of its good castability and machinability, damping characteristics, and high performance-to-cost ratio. On the other hand, weak graphite flakes present in gray cast iron serve as stress concentrators and adversely affect the material strength. Therefore, it is crucial to examine the relationship between the distribution of graphite flakes and the strength or fracture of gray cast iron. In this study, tensile tests on gray cast iron were carried out using a plate specimen and observed by scanning electron microscopy, and the microscopic deformation was observed on the specimen surface. Particularly, the change in the size of graphite flakes during the tensile tests was examined, and the observed trend was discussed. The experimental results reveal that the dimensional changes in the graphite flakes vary in the observed area and that the final fracture occurs in an area where a large dimensional change is observed, suggesting that the fracture location or critical parts of gray cast iron can be predicted from the dimensional changes of the graphite flakes at an early stage of deformation.