In the present work, a transient heat transfer problem induced by internal combustion of energetic materials was studied. Most of previous studies utilized a lumped-parameter model to predict the parameter distributions of the hot combustion products, which determine the boundary conditions for the transient heat transfer problem. Moreover, the heat exchange between the solids and the fluids was ignored in the combustion model. In order to improve the modeling accuracy, a one-dimensional (1D) two-phase flow model was utilized to predict the fluid fields and the heat exchange was coupled into the combustion model. Based on the commercial software abaqus, the transient heat transfer in the combustion chamber was studied using a finite element method. The meshes near the inner surface were refined to capture the high temperature gradients along the radial direction of the barrel. Results indicate that the coupled model is capable of solving the transient heat transfer problems heated by distributed moving heat sources. The coupled computational framework provides foundations for the study of local wear and erosion of solids in extreme working conditions.