Submerged arc welding is mainly used to weld high thickness steel plates in various applications such as offshore oil drilling platforms, bridges, building construction, and pressure vessels. Suitable flux composition and welding parameters play an important role in determining the good bead quality, which further affects the mechanical properties of welded joint. Agglomerated fluxes were formulated based on CaO–SiO2–CaF2 and CaO–SiO2–Al2O3 flux system using constrained mixture design and extreme vertices design approach. The chemical compositions of the bead on plate have been studied using formulated fluxes. Twenty one beads on plate experiments were conducted at constant current, voltage, and welding speed using submerged arc welding process. In the present study, chemical composition, grain size, and microhardness properties of series of bead on plate weld deposits (for API 5 L X70 grade pipe line) were optimized by using multiobjective optimization approach.

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