Residual stress distributions as welded and after local postwelding heat treatment (PWHT) of butted weld joint of a huge cylinder with ultra-thick wall were investigated by finite element (FE) simulations and measurement. Sequential coupling thermal-mechanical analyses were conducted with a generalized plane strain two-dimensional (2D) model to simulate the welding procedure bead by bead, combining with three-dimensional (3D) double-ellipsoid moving heat source and mixed isotropic–kinematic hardening plastic model. The simulation was validated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Simulation results showed that local PWHT with heated band width of 0.5Rt can significantly reduce the residual stress on the outer surface of weld joint, but bring about harmful high tensile stress on inner surface due to bending moment induced by local radial thermal distortion. For the purpose to find out the appropriate heated band width of local PWHT, relations between stress relief and size of heated band were studied. Results show that the stresses on the inner surface reach a maximum value when the heated band width is less than 1Rt. Based on the simulation results and from the view point of lowering the stress level on the inner surface, the optimum width of 3Rt for heated band was proposed.

References

References
1.
James
,
M. N.
,
2011
, “
Residual Stress Influences on Structural Reliability
,”
Eng. Failure. Anal.
,
18
(
8
), pp.
1909
1920
.
2.
Panontin
,
T. L.
, and
Hill
,
M. R.
,
1996
, “
The Effect of Residual Stresses on Brittle and Ductile Fracture Initiation Predicted by Micromechanical Models
,”
Int. J. Fract.
,
82
(
4
), pp.
317
333
.
3.
Webster
,
G. A.
, and
Ezeilo
,
A. N.
,
2001
, “
Residual Stress Distributions and Their Influence on Fatigue Lifetimes
,”
Int. J. Fatigue
,
23
(
1
), pp.
375
383
.
4.
Nguyen
,
T. N.
, and
Wahab
,
M. A.
,
1998
, “
The Effect of Weld Geometry and Residual Stresses on the Fatigue of Welded Joints Under Combined Loading
,”
J. Mater. Process. Tech.
,
77
(
1–3
), pp.
201
208
.
5.
Boven
,
G. V.
,
Chen
,
W.
, and
Rogge
,
R.
,
2007
, “
The Role of Residual Stress in Neutral pH Stress Corrosion Cracking of Pipeline Steels—Part I: Pitting and Cracking Occurrence
,”
Acta Mater.
,
55
(
1
), pp.
29
42
.
6.
Chen
,
W.
,
Boven
,
G. V.
, and
Rogge
,
R.
,
2007
, “
The Role of Residual Stress in Neutral pH Stress Corrosion Cracking of Pipeline Steels—Part II: Crack Dormancy
,”
Acta Mater.
,
55
(
1
), pp.
43
53
.
7.
Ueda
,
Y.
, and
Yamakawa
,
T.
,
1971
, “
Analysis of Thermal Elastic-Plastic Stress and Strain During Welding by Finite Element Method
,”
Jpn. Weld. Soc. Trans.
,
2
(2), pp.
186
196
.
8.
Rybicki
,
E. F.
,
Schmueser
,
D. W.
,
Stonesifer
,
R. W.
,
Groom
,
J. J.
, and
Mishler
,
H. W.
,
1978
, “
A Finite-Element Model for Residual Stresses and Deflections in Girth-Butt Welded Pipes
,”
ASME J Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
100
(
3
), pp.
256
262
.
9.
Ueda
,
Y.
,
Murakawa
,
H.
,
Nakacho
,
K.
, and
Ma
,
N. X.
,
1995
, “
Establishment of Computational Welding Mechanics (Mechanics, Strength & Structural Design)
,”
Trans. JWRI
,
24
(
2
), pp.
73
86
.
10.
Goldak
,
J. A.
, and
Akhlaghi
,
M.
,
2005
,
Computational Welding Mechanics
,
Springer
, New York.
11.
Lindgren
,
L. E.
,
2007
,
Computational Welding Mechanics: Thermomechanical and Microstructural Simulations
,
Woodhead Publishing
,
Cambridge, UK
.
12.
Song
,
S.
,
Dong
,
P.
, and
Pei
,
X.
,
2015
, “
A Full-Field Residual Stress Estimation Scheme for Fitness-for-Service Assessment of Pipe Girth Welds—Part I: Identification of Key Parameters
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
126–127
, pp.
58
70
.
13.
Song
,
S.
,
Dong
,
P.
, and
Pei
,
X.
,
2015
, “
A Full-Field Residual Stress Estimation Scheme for Fitness-for-Service Assessment of Pipe Girth Welds—Part II: A Shell Theory Based Implementation
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
128
, pp.
8
17
.
14.
Dong
,
P.
,
Song
,
S.
, and
Zhang
,
J.
,
2014
, “
Analysis of Residual Stress Relief Mechanisms in Post-Weld Heat Treatment
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
122
(
1
), pp.
6
14
.
15.
Wang
,
X.
,
Gong
,
J.
,
Zhao
,
Y.
,
Wang
,
Y.
, and
Ge
,
Z.
,
2016
, “
Numerical Simulation to Study the Effect of Arc Travelling Speed and Welding Sequences on Residual Stresses in Welded Sections of New Ferritic P92 Pipes
,”
High Temp. Mater. Processes
,
35
(
2
), pp.
121
128
.
16.
Wang
,
X.
,
Gong
,
J.
,
Zhao
,
Y.
,
Wang
,
Y.
, and
Wang
,
Y.
,
2015
, “
Prediction of Residual Stress Distributions in Welded Sections of P92 Pipes With Small Diameter and Thick Wall Based on 3D Finite Element Simulation
,”
High Temp. Mater. Processes
,
34
(
3
), pp.
227
236
.
17.
Mitra
,
A.
,
Prasad
,
N. S.
, and
Ram
,
G. D. J.
,
2016
, “
Estimation of Residual Stresses in an 800 mm Thick Steel Submerged Arc Weldment
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
229
, pp.
181
190
.
18.
McEnerney
,
J. W.
, and
Dong
,
P.
,
2000
, “
Recommended Practices for Local Heating of Welds in Pressure Vessels
,”
WRC Bull.
, p.
452
.https://www.forengineers.org/wrc-452.html
19.
Wang
,
J.
,
Lu
,
H.
, and
Murakawa
,
H.
,
1998
, “
Mechanical Behavior in Local Post Weld Heat Treatment (Report I): Visco-Elastic-Plastic Fem Analysis of Local PWHT (Mechanics, Strength & Structure Design)
,”
Trans. JWRI
,
27
(1), pp.
83
88
.
20.
Murakawa
,
H.
,
Lu
,
H.
, and
Wang
,
J.
,
1998
, “
Mechanical Behavior in Local Postweld Heat Treatment (Report II): Determination of Critical Heated Band During Local PWHT (Mechanics, Strength & Structure Design)
,”
Trans. JWRI
,
27
(1), pp.
89
95
.
21.
Lu
,
H.
,
Wang
,
J.
, and
Murakawa
,
H.
,
1999
, “
Mechanical Behavior in Local Post Weld Heat Treatment (Report IV): Influence of Residual Stress Distribution in Multi-Pass Welding (Mechanics, Strength & Structure Design)
,”
Trans. JWRI
,
28
(1), pp.
55
60
.
22.
Lu
,
H.
,
Wang
,
J.
, and
Murakawa
,
H.
,
2002
, “
Heated Band Width Criterion Based on Stress Relief in Local Post Weld Heat Treatment of Concurrent Tubular Joint (Mechanics, Strength & Structure Design)
,”
Trans. JWRI
,
31
(1), pp.
77
81
.
23.
Nie
,
C.
, and
Dong
,
P.
,
2015
, “
A Thermal Stress Mitigation Technique for Local Postweld Heat Treatment of Welds in Pressure Vessels
,”
ASME J Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
137
(
5
), p.
051404
.
24.
Pan
,
J.
,
2000
,
Practical Handbook of Pressure Vessel Materials—Carbon Steel and Alloy Steel
,
Chemical Industry Press
,
Beijing, China
.
25.
Goldak
,
J.
,
Chakravarti
,
A.
, and
Bibby
,
M.
,
1984
, “
A New Finite Element Model for Welding Heat Sources
,”
Metall. Mater. Trans. B
,
15
(
2
), pp.
299
305
.
26.
Smith
,
M. C.
, and
Smith
,
A. C.
,
2009
, “
NeT Bead-on-Plate Round Robin: Comparison of Transient Thermal Predictions and Measurements
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
86
(
1
), pp.
96
109
.
27.
Smith
,
M. C.
,
Nadri
,
B.
, and
Smith
,
A. C.
,
2009
, “
Optimisation of Mixed Hardening Material Constitutive Models for Weld Residual Stress Simulation Using the Net Task Group 1 Single Bead on Plate Benchmark Problem
,”
ASME
Paper No. PVP2009-77158.
28.
Muránsky
,
O.
,
Hamelin
,
C. J.
, and
Smith
,
M. C.
,
2012
, “
The Effect of Plasticity Theory on Predicted Residual Stress Fields in Numerical Weld Analyses
,”
Comput. Mater. Sci.
,
54
(
1
), pp.
125
134
.
29.
Ying
,
L.
, and
Guo
,
F.
,
2012
, “
Simulation and Validation of Welding Residual Stresses Based on Non-Linear Mixed Hardening Model
,”
Strain
,
48
(
5
), pp.
406
414
.
30.
Xu
,
L.
,
Miao
,
Y.
, and
Jing
,
H.
,
2014
, “
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Heated Band Width for Local Post Weld Heat Treatment of ASME P92 Steel Pipe
,”
ASME J Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
136
(
1
), p.
011401
.
You do not currently have access to this content.