In this article, we simulate traveling liquid slugs in conduits, as they may occur in systems carrying high-pressure steam. We consider both horizontal and inclined pipes in which the slug is accelerated by a suddenly applied pressure gradient, while at the same time, gravity and friction work in the opposite direction. This causes a steep slug front and an extended slug tail. The shapes of front and tail are of interest since they determine the forces exerted on bends and other obstacles in the piping system. The study also aims at improving existing one-dimensional (1D) models. A hybrid model is proposed that enables us to leave out the larger inner part of the slug. It was found that the hybrid model speeds up the two-dimensional (2D) computations significantly, while having no adverse effects on the shapes of the slug's front and tail.

References

References
1.
Tijsseling
,
A.
,
Hou
,
Q.
,
Bozkuş
,
Z.
, and
Laanearu
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Improved One-Dimensional Models for Rapid Emptying and Filling of Pipelines
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
138
(
3
), p.
031301
.
2.
Kirsner
,
W.
,
1999
, “
Condensation-Induced Waterhammer
,”
HPAC Heating/Piping/AirConditioning
,
71
(
1
), pp.
112
122
.
3.
Galante
,
C.
, and
Pointer
,
S.
,
2002
, “
Catastrophic Water Hammer in a Steam Dead Leg
,”
IChemE Loss Prevention Bull.
,
167
(
1
), pp.
16
20
.
4.
Kirsner
,
W.
,
2005
, “
Condensation-Induced Water Hammer in District Steam Systems—Circumstances Resulting in Catastrophic Failures
,”
ASME
Paper No. PVP2005-71590.
5.
Carlson
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Condensation Induced Water Hammer and Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage in the Athabasca Oil Sands
,”
14th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics
, Toronto, ON, Canada, Sept. 25–30, Paper No. NURETH14-600.
6.
Vecchio
,
R.
,
Sinha
,
S.
,
Bruck
,
P.
,
Esselman
,
T.
,
Zysk
,
G.
, and
Somrah
,
D.
,
2015
, “
The 2007 New York City Steam Explosion: Post-Accident Analysis
,”
12th International Conference on Pressure Surges
, Dublin, Ireland, Nov. 18–20, pp.
7
17
.
7.
Bozkuş
,
Z.
, and
Wiggert
,
D.
,
1997
, “
Liquid Slug Motion in a Voided Line
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
,
11
(
8
), pp.
947
963
.
8.
Martin
,
C.
,
2003
, “
Condensation-Induced Water Hammer in Horizontal Refrigerant Pipe With Warm Gas Entry
,”
ASME
Paper No. FEDSM2003-45678.
9.
Bozkuş
,
Z.
,
Baran
,
O.
, and
Ger
,
M.
,
2004
, “
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Transient Liquid Slug Motion in a Voided Line
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
126
(
2
), pp.
241
249
.
10.
Prasser
,
H.
,
Ézsöl
,
G.
,
Baranyai
,
G.
, and
Sühnel
,
T.
,
2008
, “
Spontaneous Water Hammers in a Steam Line in the Case of Cold Water Ingress
,”
Multiphase Sci. Technol.
,
20
(
3–4
), pp.
265
290
.
11.
Martin
,
C.
,
2013
, “
Waterhammer in a Horizontal Pipe Induced by Slug Formation and Rapid Condensation
,”
ASME
Paper No. PVP2013-97424.
12.
Dirndorfer
,
S.
,
Kulisch
,
H.
, and
Malcherek
,
A.
,
2013
, “
Experiments of Condensation-Induced Water Hammers at the UniBw Munich
,”
Kerntechnik
,
78
(
1
), pp.
22
24
.
13.
Barna
,
I.
,
Imre
,
A.
,
Baranyai
,
G.
, and
Ézsöl
,
G.
,
2010
, “
Experimental and Theoretical Study of Steam Condensation Induced Water Hammer Phenomena
,”
Nucl. Eng. Des.
,
240
(
1
), pp.
146
150
.
14.
Barrera
,
C.
, and
Kemal
,
A.
,
2010
, “
Condensation Induced Water Hammer: Principles and Consequences
,”
AIChE Spring Meeting and Sixth Global Congress on Process Safety
, San Antonio, TX, Mar. 22–24, pp.
719
731
.
15.
Xing
,
L.
,
Yeung
,
H.
, and
Lo
,
S.
,
2011
, “
Investigation of Slug Flow Induced Forces on Pipe Bends Applying STAR-OLGA Coupling
,”
15th International Conference on Multiphase Production Technology
, Cannes, France, June 15, pp.
327
344
.
16.
Swidersky
,
H.
,
2013
, “
Condensation Induced Water Hammer (CIWH)—Relevance in the Nuclear Industry and State of Science and Technology
,”
Kerntechnik
,
78
(
1
), pp.
16
21
.
17.
Blömeling
,
F.
,
Neuhaus
,
T.
, and
Schaffrath
,
A.
,
2013
, “
1D Models for Condensation Induced Water Hammer in Pipelines
,”
Kerntechnik
,
78
(
1
), pp.
31
34
.
18.
Hou
,
Q.
,
Tijsseling
,
A.
, and
Bozkuş
,
Z.
,
2014
, “
Dynamic Force on an Elbow Caused by a Traveling Liquid Slug
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
136
(
3
), p.
031302
.
19.
Barna
,
I.
,
Pocsai
,
M.
,
Guba
,
A.
, and
Imre
,
A.
,
2015
, “
Theoretical Study of Steam Condensation Induced Water Hammer Phenomena in Horizontal Pipelines
,”
Kerntechnik
,
80
(
5
), pp.
420
423
.
20.
Tijsseling
,
A.
,
Hou
,
Q.
, and
Bozkuş
,
Z.
,
2016
, “
An Improved One-Dimensional Model for Liquid Slugs Traveling in Pipelines
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
138
(
1
), p.
011301
.
21.
Tay
,
B.
, and
Thorpe
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Hydrodynamic Forces Acting on Pipe Bends in Gas-Liquid Slug Flow
,”
Chem. Eng. Res. Des.
,
92
(
5
), pp.
812
825
.
22.
Korzilius
,
S.
,
2016
, “
Second Derivatives, Particle Collisions and Travelling Liquid Slugs Within Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
,”
Ph.D. thesis
, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
23.
Marrone
,
S.
,
Colagrossi
,
A.
,
Le Touzé
,
D.
, and
Graziani
,
G.
,
2010
, “
Fast Free-Surface Detection and Level-Set Function Definition in SPH Solvers
,”
J. Comput. Phys.
,
229
(
10
), pp.
3652
3663
.
You do not currently have access to this content.