Shell structures are built using a number of welded curved panel parts. Hence, some geometrical imperfections emerge. These imperfections have a direct impact on structural behavior of shells during the external compressive loading. In this research, a field study was accomplished on the implementation of the storage tanks in a refinery site, and then the resulted imperfections were identified and categorized. The survey of imperfections revealed that imperfection resulted from deviation with respect to the vertical direction has the highest number in tank bodies. This imperfection experimentally modeled, and the buckling behavior of these tanks was evaluated under uniform external pressure. The cylindrical tanks were examined using finite element analysis, and results obtained were compared with experimental results. Investigation of finding results demonstrated that such imperfection has a significant role in reducing the number of circumferential waves in body of the tanks under uniform external pressure. Comparing the results obtained by estimation, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code, experimental research, and finite element method (FEM) represented a considerable difference in the amount of buckling load. Results show that tanks with oblique body imperfections exhibit high initial strength against buckling due to the uniform external pressure.

References

References
1.
Farshad
,
M.
,
1983
,
Stability of Structures
,
2nd ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
2.
Teng
,
J. G.
,
1996
, “
Buckling of Thin Shells: Recent Advances and Trends
,”
ASME Appl. Mech. Rev.
,
49
(
4
), pp.
263
274
.
3.
Showkati
,
H.
, and
Ansourian
,
H.
,
1996
, “
Influence of Primary Boundary Condition on the Buckling of Shallow Cylindrical Shells
,”
J. Constr. Steel Res.
,
36
(
1
), pp.
53
75
.
4.
Wang
,
J. H.
, and
Koizumi
,
A.
,
2010
, “
Buckling of Cylindrical Shells With Longitudinal Joints Under External Pressure
,”
J. Thin-Walled Struct.
,
48
(
12
), pp.
897
904
.
5.
Chen
,
L.
,
Rotter
,
J. M.
, and
Doerich
,
C.
,
2011
, “
Buckling of Cylindrical Shells With Stepwise Variable Wall Thickness Under Uniform External Pressure
,”
J. Eng. Struct.
,
33
(
12
), pp.
3570
3578
.
6.
Aghajari
,
S.
,
Showkati
,
H.
, and
Abedi
,
K.
,
2011
, “
Experimental Investigation on the Buckling of Thin Cylindrical Shells With Two-Stepwise Variable Thickness Under External Pressure
,”
Int. J. Struct. Eng. Mech.
,
39
(
6
), pp.
849
860
.
7.
Jalili
,
S.
,
Zamani
,
J.
,
Shariyat
,
M.
,
Jalili
,
N.
,
Ajdari
,
M. A. B.
, and
Jafari
,
M.
,
2014
, “
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Composite Conical Shells' Stability Subjected to Dynamic Loading
,”
J. Struct. Eng. Mech.
,
49
(
5
), pp.
555
568
.
8.
Ghazijahani
,
T. G.
,
Jiao
,
H.
, and
Holloway
,
D.
,
2015
, “
Longitudinally Stiffened Corrugated Cylindrical Shells Under Uniform External Pressure
,”
J. Constr. Steel Res.
,
110
, pp.
191
199
.
9.
Vinson
,
J. R.
,
1998
,
The Behavior of Thin Walled Structures: Beams, Plates and Shells
(Mechanics of Surface Structures, Vol.
8
), Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
10.
Calladine
,
C. R.
,
1995
, “
Understanding Imperfection-Sensitivity in the Buckling of Thin-Walled Shells
,”
J. Thin-Walled Struct.
,
23
(4), pp.
215
235
.
11.
Teng
,
J. G.
,
Lin
,
X.
,
Rotter
,
J. M.
, and
Ding
,
X. L.
,
2005
, “
Analysis of Geometric Imperfections in Full-Scale Welded Steel Silos
,”
J. Eng. Struct.
,
27
(
6
), pp.
938
950
.
12.
Hubner
,
A.
,
Teng
,
J. G.
, and
Saal
,
H.
,
2006
, “
Buckling Behavior of Large Steel Cylinders With Patterned Welds
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
83
(
1
), pp.
13
26
.
13.
Lo Frano
,
R.
, and
Forasassi
,
G.
,
2009
, “
Experimental Evidence of Imperfection Influence on the Buckling of Thin Cylindrical Shell Under Uniform External Pressure
,”
J. Nucl. Eng. Des.
,
239
(
2
), pp.
193
200
.
14.
Maali
,
M.
,
Showkati
,
H.
, and
Fatemi
,
S. M.
,
2012
, “
Investigation of the Buckling Behavior of Conical Shells Under Weld-Induced Imperfections
,”
J. Thin-Walled Struct.
,
57
(
8
), pp.
13
24
.
15.
Yang
,
L.
,
Chen
,
Z.
,
Chen
,
F.
,
Guo
,
W.
, and
Cao
,
G.
,
2013
, “
Buckling of Cylindrical Shells With General Axisymmetric Thickness Imperfections Under External Pressure
,”
Eur. J. Mech. A
,
38
, pp.
90
99
.
16.
Fatemi
,
S. M.
,
Showkati
,
H.
, and
Maali
,
M.
,
2013
, “
Experiments on Imperfect Cylindrical Shells Under Uniform External Pressure
,”
J. Thin-Walled Struct.
,
65
, pp.
14
25
.
17.
Khaled El-Sawy
,
M.
,
2013
, “
Inelastic Stability of Liners of Cylindrical Conduits With Local Imperfection Under External Pressure
,”
J. Tunneling Underground Space Technol.
,
33
, pp.
98
110
.
18.
Ghazijahani
,
T. G.
,
Jiao
,
H.
, and
Holloway
,
D.
,
2014
, “
Experiments on Dented Cylindrical Shells Under Peripheral Pressure
,”
J. Thin-Walled Struct.
,
84
, pp.
14
25
.
19.
Thompson
,
J. M. T.
,
2015
, “
Advances in Shell Buckling: Theory and Experiment
,”
Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos
,
25
(
1
), p.
1530001
.
20.
Cao
,
G.
,
Chen
,
Z.
,
Yang
,
L.
,
Fan
,
H.
, and
Zhou
,
F.
,
2014
, “
Analytical Study on the Buckling of Cylindrical Shells With Arbitrary Thickness Imperfections Under Axial Compression
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
137
(1), p.
011201
.
21.
Lee
,
A.
,
Jimenez
,
F. L.
,
Marthelot
,
J.
,
Hutchinson
,
J. W.
, and
Reis
,
P. M.
,
2016
, “
The Geometric Role of Precisely Engineered Imperfections on the Critical Buckling Load of Spherical Elastic Shells
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
83
(
11
), p.
111005
.
22.
Evkin
,
A.
,
Kolesnikov
,
M.
, and
Prikazchikov
,
D. A.
,
2016
, “
Buckling of a Spherical Shell Under External Pressure and Inward Concentrated Load: Asymptotic Solution
,”
J. Math. Mech. Solids
,
22
(6), pp.
1425
1437
.
23.
Hutchinson
,
J. W.
, and
Thompson
,
J. M. T.
,
2017
, “
Nonlinear Buckling Behavior of Spherical Shells: Barriers and Symmetry-Breaking Dimples
,”
Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A
,
375
(
2093
), p. 20160154.
24.
Jawad
,
M. H.
,
1994
,
Theory and Design of Plate and Shell Structures
,
1st ed.
,
Chapman & Hall
,
London
.
25.
Brush
,
D. O.
, and
Almorth
,
B. O.
,
1975
,
Buckling of Bears Plates and Shells
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
26.
ASME
,
1992
, “
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Rules for Construction for Pressure Vessels, Division 1
,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
You do not currently have access to this content.