Many recent studies have emphasized the need for improving seismic performance of nonstructural systems in critical facilities in order to reduce the damage as well as to maintain continued operation of the facility after an earthquake. This paper is focused on evaluating system-level seismic fragility of the piping in a representative high-rise building. Piping fragilities are evaluated by incorporating the nonlinear finite-element model of a threaded Tee-joint that is validated using experimental results. The emphasis in this study is on evaluating the effects of building performance on the piping fragility. The differences in piping fragility due to the nonlinearities in building are evaluated by comparing the fragility curves for linear frame and nonlinear fiber models. It is observed that as nonlinearity in the building increases with increasing value of peak ground acceleration, the floor accelerations exhibit a reduction due to degradation/softening. Consequently, the probabilities of failure increase at a slower rate relative to that in a linear frame. It is also observed that a piping located at higher floor does not necessarily exhibits high fragilities, i.e., the fundamental building mode is not always the governing mode. Higher order building modes with frequencies closest to critical piping modes of interest contribute more significantly to the piping fragility. Within a particular building mode of interest, a good indicator of the amplification at different floor levels can be obtained by the product of mode shape ordinate and modal participation factor. Piping fragilities are likely to be higher at floor levels at which this product has a higher value.

References

References
1.
Brunesi
,
E.
,
Nascimbene
,
R.
, and
Casagrande
,
L.
,
2016
, “
Seismic Analysis of High-Rise Mega-Braced Frame-Core Buildings
,”
Eng. Struct.
,
115
, pp.
1
17
.
2.
Fan
,
H.
,
Li
,
Q. S.
,
Tuan
,
A. Y.
, and
Xu
,
L.
,
2009
, “
Seismic Analysis of the World's Tallest Building
,”
J. Constr. Steel Res.
,
65
(
5
), pp.
1206
1215
.
3.
Reitherman
,
R.
, and
Sabol
,
T. A.
,
1995
, “
Northridge Earthquake of January 17, 1994: Reconnaissance Report—Nonstructural Damage
,”
Earthquake Spectra
,
11
(
S2
), pp.
453
514
.
4.
Horne
,
J.
, and
Burton
,
H.
,
2003
, “
Investigation of Code Seismic Force Levels for Hospital Equipment
,”
Seminar on Seismic Design, Performance, and Retrofit of Nonstructural Components, Vol. 2, ATC-29.
5.
Shinozuka
,
M.
, and
Masri
,
S.
,
2003
, “
Seismic Risk Assessment of Non-Structural Components in Hospitals
,” University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, FEMA/USC Project, Draft Report.
6.
Miranda
,
E.
, and
Taghavi
,
S.
,
2006
, “
Estimation of Seismic Demands on Acceleration-Sensitive Nonstructural Components in Critical Facilities
,”
Seminar on Seismic Design, Performance, and Retrofit of Nonstructural Components in Critical Facilities
, p. 29-2.
7.
Dey
,
A.
, and
Gupta
,
V. K.
,
1999
, “
Stochastic Seismic Response of Multiply-Supported Secondary Systems in Flexible-Base Structures
,”
Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn.
,
28
(
4
), pp.
351
369
.
8.
Filiatrault
,
A.
, and
Sullivan
,
T.
,
2014
, “
Performance-Based Seismic Design of Nonstructural Building Components: The Next Frontier of Earthquake Engineering
,”
Earthquake Eng. Eng. Vib.
,
13
(
1
), pp.
17
46
.
9.
Sullivan
,
T.
,
Calvi
,
P. M.
, and
Nascimbene
,
R.
,
2013
, “
Towards Improved Floor Spectra Estimates for Seismic Design
,”
Earthquake Struct.
,
4
(
1
), pp.
109
132
.
10.
Ju
,
B. S.
, and
Gupta
,
A.
,
2015
, “
Seismic Fragility of Threaded Tee-Joint Connections in Piping Systems
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
132–133
, pp.
106
118
.
11.
Wood
,
R. L.
,
Hutchinson
,
T. C.
, and
Hoehler
,
M. S.
,
2009
, “
Cyclic Load and Crack Protocols for Anchored Nonstructural Components and Systems
,” Structural Systems Research Project Report Series, University of California, San Diego, CA, Report No. 2009 SSRP 09/1.
12.
IBC
,
2006
, “
International Building Code 2006
,” International Code Council, Falls Church, VA.
13.
ACI
,
2014
, “
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete
,” American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, Code No. ACI 318-14.
14.
Englekirk
,
R. E.
,
2003
,
Seismic Design of Reinforced and Precast Concrete Buildings
,
Wiley
,
Hoboken, NJ
.
15.
UC Berkeley
,
2010
, “
Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (OpenSees)
,”
University of California
, Berkeley, CA.
16.
Mazzoni
,
S.
,
Mckenna
,
F.
,
Scott
,
M. H.
, and
Fenves
,
G. L.
,
2006
, “
OpenSees Command Language Manual
,”
University of California
, Berkeley, CA.
17.
Kent
,
D. C.
, and
Park
,
R.
,
1969
, “
Inelastic Behavior Reinforced Concrete Members With Cyclic Loading
,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
18.
Scott
,
M. H.
, and
Fenves
,
G. L.
,
2006
, “
Plastic Hinge Integration Methods for Force-Based Beam–Column Elements
,”
J. Struct. Eng.
,
132
(
2
), pp.
244
252
.
19.
Paulay
,
T.
, and
Priestley
,
M. J. N.
,
1992
,
Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Buildings
,
Wiley
,
Hoboken, NJ
.
20.
NFPA
,
2007
, “
Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler System
,” National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, Standard No. NFPA-13.
21.
SMACNA
,
2003
, “
Seismic Restraint Manual Guidelines for Mechanical Systems
,” Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association, Inc., Chantilly, VA.
22.
Dow
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Testing and Analysis of Iron and Plastic Tee-Joint in Sprinkler Systems. NEESR-GC: Simulation of the Seismic Performance of Nonstructural Systems
,”
NEES
, Washington, DC.
23.
Sundararajan
,
C.
,
1995
,
Probabilistic Structural Mechanics Handbook, Theory and Industrial Applications
,
Chapman and Hall, Montgomery, TX.
24.
Rice
,
J. A.
,
1995
,
Mathematical Statistics and Data Analysis
,
Duxbury Press
,
Belmont, CA
.
25.
Shinozuka
,
M.
,
Feng
,
M. Q.
,
Lee
,
J.
, and
Naganuma
,
T.
,
2000
, “
Statistical Analysis of Fragility Curves
,”
J. Eng. Mech.
,
126
(
12
), pp.
1224
1231
.
26.
Straub
,
D.
, and
Der Kiureghian
,
A.
,
2008
, “
Improved Seismic Fragility Modeling From Empirical Data
,”
Struct. Saf.
,
30
(
4
), pp.
320
336
.
27.
ASME
,
2004
, “
Rule for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components
,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III.
28.
PEER-NRG NGA
,
2009
, “
Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center: NGA Database
,”
University of California
, Berkeley, CA.
29.
UBC
,
1997
, “
Uniform Building Code 1997
,”
International Conference of Building Officials
, Whittier, CA.
You do not currently have access to this content.