Through-thickness distributions of the welding residual stresses were studied in the range of 50–100 mm thick plates by using finite-element modeling (FEM) and neutron diffraction measurements. In order to simulate the residual stresses through the thickness of the thick weld joints, this paper proposes a two-dimensional generalized plane strain (GPS) finite-element model coupled with the mixed work hardening model. The residual stress distributions show mostly asymmetric parabola profiles through the thickness of the welds and it is in good correlation with the neutron diffraction results. Both the heat input and plate thickness have little influence on the residual stress distributions due to the relatively large constraints of the thick specimen applied for each welding pass. A general formula has been suggested to evaluate the distributions of the through-thickness residual stresses in thick welds based on FEM and neutron diffraction experimental results.

References

References
1.
Buddu
,
R. K.
,
Chauhan
,
N.
,
Raole
,
P. M.
, and
Natu
,
H.
,
2015
, “
Studies on Mechanical Properties, Microstructure and Fracture Morphology Details of Laser Beam Welded Thick SS304L Plates for Fusion Reactor Applications
,”
Fusion Eng. Des.
,
95
, pp.
34
43
.
2.
Xu
,
M.
,
Chen
,
J.
,
Lu
,
H.
,
Xu
,
J.
,
Yu
,
C.
, and
Wei
,
X.
,
2016
, “
Effects of Residual Stress and Grain Boundary Character on Creep Cracking in 2.25Cr-1.6W Steel
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
659
, pp.
188
197
.
3.
Doremus
,
L.
,
Cormier
,
J.
,
Villechaise
,
P.
,
Henaff
,
G.
,
Nadot
,
Y.
, and
Pierret
,
S.
,
2015
, “
Influence of Residual Stresses on the Fatigue Crack Growth From Surface Anomalies in a Nickel-Based Superalloy
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
644
, pp.
234
246
.
4.
Winzer
,
N.
,
Atrens
,
A.
,
Dietzel
,
W.
,
Raja
, V
. S.
,
Song
,
G.
, and
Kainer
,
K. U.
,
2008
, “
Characterisation of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) of Mg-Al Alloys
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
488
(
1–2
), pp.
339
351
.
5.
Smith
,
D. J.
,
Zheng
,
G.
,
Hurrell
,
P. R.
,
Gill
,
C. M.
,
Pellereau
,
B. M. E.
,
Ayres
,
K.
,
Goudar
,
D.
, and
Kingston
,
E.
,
2014
, “
Measured and Predicted Residual Stresses in Thick Section Electron Beam Welded Steels
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
120–121
, pp.
66
79
.
6.
Alipooramirabad
,
H.
,
Paradowska
,
A.
,
Ghomashchi
,
R.
,
Kotousov
,
A.
, and
Reid
,
M.
,
2015
, “
Quantification of Residual Stresses in Multi-Pass Welds Using Neutron Diffraction
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
226
, pp.
40
49
.
7.
Woo
,
W.
,
An
,
G. B.
,
Kingston
,
E. J.
,
DeWald
,
A. T.
,
Smith
,
D. J.
, and
Hill
,
M. R.
,
2013
, “
Through-Thickness Distributions of Residual Stresses in Two Extreme Heat-Input Thick Welds: A Neutron Diffraction, Contour Method and Deep Hole Drilling Study
,”
Acta Mater.
,
61
(
10
), pp.
3564
3574
.
8.
Pearce
,
S. V.
,
Linton
,
V. M.
, and
Oliver
,
E. C.
,
2008
, “
Residual Stress in a Thick Section High Strength T-Butt Weld
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
480
(
1
), pp.
411
418
.
9.
Yaghi
,
A. H.
,
Hyde
,
T. H.
,
Becker
,
A. A.
, and
Sun
,
W.
,
2013
, “
Finite Element Simulation of Residual Stresses Induced by the Dissimilar Welding of a P92 Steel Pipe With Weld Metal IN625
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
111–112
, pp.
173
186
.
10.
Prime
,
M. B.
,
Gnäupel-Herold
,
T.
,
Baumann
,
J. A.
,
Lederich
,
R. J.
,
Bowden
,
D. M.
, and
Sebring
,
R. J.
,
2006
, “
Residual Stress Measurements in a Thick, Dissimilar Aluminum Alloy Friction Stir Weld
,”
Acta Mater.
,
54
(
15
), pp.
4013
4021
.
11.
Muránsky
,
O.
,
Smith
,
M. C.
,
Bendeich
,
P. J.
, and
Edwards
,
L.
,
2011
, “
Validated Numerical Analysis of Residual Stresses in Safety Relief Valve (SRV) Nozzle Mock-Ups
,”
Comput. Mater. Sci.
,
50
(
7
), pp.
2203
2215
.
12.
Javadi
,
Y.
,
Akhlaghi
,
M.
, and
Najafabadi
,
M. A.
,
2013
, “
Using Finite Element and Ultrasonic Method to Evaluate Welding Longitudinal Residual Stress Through the Thickness in Austenitic Stainless Steel Plates
,”
Mater. Des.
,
45
(
45
), pp.
628
642
.
13.
Javadi
,
Y.
,
Pirzaman
,
H. S.
,
Raeisi
,
M. H.
, and
Najafabadi
,
M. A.
,
2013
, “
Ultrasonic Evaluation of Welding Residual Stresses in Stainless Steel Pressure Vessel
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
135
(
4
), p.
041502
.
14.
Javadi
,
Y.
,
2014
, “
Investigation of Clamping Effect on the Welding Residual Stress and Deformation of Monel Plates by Using the Ultrasonic Stress Measurement and Finite Element Method
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
137
(
1
), p.
011501
.
15.
Javadi
,
Y.
, and
Ashoori
,
M.
,
2015
, “
Sub-Surface Stress Measurement of Cross Welds in a Dissimilar Welded Pressure Vessel
,”
Mater. Des.
,
85
, pp.
82
90
.
16.
Ikushima
,
K.
, and
Shibahara
,
M.
,
2014
, “
Prediction of Residual Stresses in Multi-Pass Welded Joint Using Idealized Explicit FEM Accelerated by a GPU
,”
Comput. Mater. Sci.
,
93
, pp.
62
67
.
17.
Deng
,
D.
,
Kiyoshima
,
S.
,
Ogawa
,
K.
,
Yanagida
,
N.
, and
Saito
,
K.
,
2011
, “
Predicting Welding Residual Stresses in a Dissimilar Metal Girth Welded Pipe Using 3D Finite Element Model With a Simplified Heat Source
,”
Nucl. Eng. Des.
,
241
(
1
), pp.
46
54
.
18.
Bhatti
,
A. A.
,
Barsoum
,
Z.
, and
Khurshid
,
M.
,
2014
, “
Development of a Finite Element Simulation Framework for the Prediction of Residual Stresses in Large Welded Structures
,”
Comput. Struct.
,
133
, pp.
1
11
.
19.
Bhatti
,
A. A.
, and
Barsoum
,
Z.
,
2012
, “
Development of Efficient Three-Dimensional Welding Simulation Approach for Residual Stress Estimation in Different Welded Joints
,”
J. Strain Anal. Eng. Des.
,
47
(
8
), pp.
539
552
.
20.
Tan
,
L.
,
Zhang
,
J.
,
Zhuang
,
D.
, and
Liu
,
C.
,
2014
, “
Influences of Lumped Passes on Welding Residual Stress of a Thick-Walled Nuclear Rotor Steel Pipe by Multipass Narrow Gap Welding
,”
Nucl. Eng. Des.
,
237
, pp.
47
57
.
21.
Mitra
,
A.
,
Prasad
,
N. S.
, and
Ram
,
G. D. J.
,
2015
, “
Estimation of Residual Stresses in an 800 mm Thick Steel Submerged Arc Weldment
,”
J. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
229
, pp.
181
190
.
22.
Elmesalamy
,
A.
,
Francis
,
J. A.
, and
Li
,
L.
,
2014
, “
A Comparison of Residual Stresses in Multi Pass Narrow Gap Laser Welds and Gas-Tungsten Arc Welds in AISI 316L Stainless Steel
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
113
, pp.
49
59
.
23.
Jiang
,
W.
, and
Yahiaoui
,
K.
,
2010
, “
Influence of Cooling Rate on Predicted Weld Residual Stress Buildup in a Thick-Walled Piping Intersection
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
132
(
2
), p.
021205
.
24.
Li
,
Y.
,
Kaji
,
Y.
, and
Igarashi
,
T.
,
2012
, “
Effects of Thermal Load and Cooling Condition on Weld Residual Stress in a Core Shroud With Numerical Simulation
,”
Nucl. Eng. Des.
242
, pp.
100
107
.
25.
Jiang
,
W.
,
Gong
,
J. M.
,
Woo
,
W.
,
Wang
,
Y. F.
, and
Tu
,
S. T.
,
2012
, “
Control of Welding Residual Stress and Deformation of the Butt Welded Ultrathick Tube-Sheet: Effect of Applied Load
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
134
(
6
), p.
061406
.
26.
Xu
,
S.
,
Wei
,
R.
,
Wang
,
W.
, and
Chen
,
X.
,
2014
, “
Residual Stresses in the Welding Joint of the Nozzle-to-Head Area of a Layered High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage Tank
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
39
(
21
), pp.
11061
11070
.
27.
Liang
,
W.
,
Murakawa
,
H.
, and
Deng
,
D.
,
2015
, “
Investigation of Welding Residual Stress Distribution in a Thick-Plate Joint With an Emphasis on the Features Near Weld End-Start
,”
Mater. Des.
,
67
, pp.
303
312
.
28.
Deng
,
D.
, and
Kiyoshima
,
S.
,
2011
, “
FEM Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution Near Weld Start/End Location in Thick Plates
,”
Comput. Mater. Sci.
,
50
(
8
), pp.
2459
2469
.
29.
Woo
,
W.
,
An
,
G. B.
,
Kingston
,
E. J.
,
DeWald
,
A. T.
,
Smith
,
D. J.
, and
Hill
,
M. R.
,
2013
, “
Through-Thickness Distributions of Residual Stresses in Two Extreme Heat-Input Thick Welds: A Neutron Diffraction, Contour Method and Deep Hole Drilling Study
,”
Acta Mater.
,
61
(
10
), pp.
3564
3574
.
30.
Woo
,
W.
,
An
,
G. B.
,
Em
,
V. T.
,
DeWald
,
A. T.
, and
Hill
,
M. R.
,
2015
, “
Through-Thickness Distributions of Residual Stresses in an 80 mm Thick Weld Using Neutron Diffraction and Contour Method
,”
J. Mater. Sci.
,
50
(
2
), pp.
784
793
.
31.
Yaghi
,
A.
,
Hyde
,
T. H.
,
Becker
,
A. A.
,
Sun
,
W.
, and
Williams
,
J. A.
,
2006
, “
Residual Stress Simulation in Thin and Thick-Walled Stainless Steel Pipe Welds Including Pipe Diameter Effects
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
83
, pp.
864
874
.
You do not currently have access to this content.