Worldwide, the pipeline mileage has increased dramatically since 1948 when the industry began to keep mileage statistics for pipeline construction, especially in China. Before operating long distance oil and gas pipelines, the pressure testing for tightness and strength is of great importance for ensuring operating safety. Water is used as service fluid for the pressure testing due to its safety, and long distance pipeline is divided into a number of small sections according to complex terrain conditions. Segmental water pressure testing is now very frequently used in the oil and gas industry, ensuring safety and efficient construction of pipelines. However, some new problems may arise, in practice, for the pigging process, following water pressure testing. Based on the review of previous papers about pipes accidents, the causes can be classified into hydraulic and nonhydraulic aspects. With the method of characteristic (MOC) and basic theory of gas–liquid two-phase unsteady flow, a mathematical model is developed to simulate the hydraulic transients during the pigging process. The model has been applied to some segmental pipes in China to predict varying pressures under complex terrain conditions. Pressure pulses predicted at the end of pigging in the numerical results have also been found to occur in field trials. The analysis shows that pressure pulses may cause overpressure accidents due to vapor cavity collapse. The techniques in this paper can give reasonable instructions in long distance pipeline constructing, promoting the development of Chinese oil and gas industry.

References

References
1.
McDermott
,
J. R.
, and
Mes
,
M. J.
,
1976
, “
Vortex Shedding Can Cause Pipelines to Break
,”
Pipeline Gas
,
203
(
10
), pp.
29
42
.
2.
Matsumura
,
M.
,
2006
, “
A Case Study of a Pipe Line Burst in the Mihama Nuclear Power Plant
,”
Mater. Corros.
,
57
(
11
), pp.
872
882
.
3.
Balvant
,
R.
, and
Yehuda
,
K.
,
2001
, “
Comprehensive Review of Structural Deterioration of Water Mains: Physically Based Models
,”
Urban Water
,
3
(
3
), pp.
151
164
.
4.
Ahmad
,
H.
,
1994
, “
Effect of Temperature Changes on Water-Main Breaks
,”
J. Transp. Eng.
,
120
(
2
), pp.
312
321
.
5.
Smith
,
L. A.
,
2000
,
Option for Leak and Break Detection and Repair for Drink Water System
,
Battelle Press
, Columbus, OH.
6.
Standardization Administration for the PR of China
,
2006
, “
Oil and Gas Long Distance Pipeline Engineering Construction and Acceptance Specification
,” China Planning Press, Beijing, China, Paper No. GB50369-2006.
7.
Angus
,
R. W.
,
1935
, “
Simple Graphical Solution for Pressure Rise in Pipes and Discharge Lines
,”
J. Eng. Inst. Can.
,
18
(
2
), pp.
72
81
, 264–273.
8.
Berganta
,
A.
,
Simpsonb
,
A. R.
, and
Tijsseling
,
A. S.
,
2006
, “
Water Hammer With Column Separation: A Historical Review
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
,
22
(
2
), pp.
135
171
.
9.
Baltzer
,
R. A.
,
1967
, “
A Study of Column Separation Accompanying Transient Flow of Liquid in Pipes
,” Ph.D. thesis, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
10.
Baltzer
,
R. A.
,
1967
, “
Column Separation Accompanying Liquid Transients in Pipes
,”
ASME J. Basic Eng.
,
89
(
4
), pp.
837
846
.
11.
Streeter
,
V. L.
, and
Wylie
,
E. B.
,
1967
,
Hydraulic Transients
,
McGraw-Hill Book Company
,
New York
.
12.
Nguyen
,
T. T.
,
Yoo
,
H. R.
,
Rho
,
Y. W.
, and
Kim
,
S. B.
,
2001
, “
Speed Control of Pig Bypass Flow in Natural Gas Pipeline
,”
International Symposium on Industrial Electronics
, Pusan, Korea, June 12–16, pp. 863–868.
13.
Deng
,
T.
,
Gong
,
J.
, and
Li
,
X.
,
2012
, “
A Dynamic Simulation Study of Overpressure for Pigging Process
,”
ASME
Paper No. IPC2012-90354.
14.
Deng
,
T.
, and
Gong
,
J.
,
2013
, “
Hydraulic Transients Induced by Pigging Operation in Pipeline With a Long Slope
,”
J. Appl. Math.
,
2013
, p.
231260
.
15.
Hamid
,
S.
,
1994
, “
Dynamic Characteristics of a Pipeline Dewatering Train
,” 26th Annual
OTC
, Houston, TX, May 2–5, Paper No. OTC-7578-MS.
You do not currently have access to this content.