In the present paper, the closed-form expressions for the stress intensity factors (SIFs) and the elastic crack opening displacements (CODs) of complex-cracked pipes are derived based on the systematic three-dimensional (3D) elastic finite-element (FE) analyses. The loading conditions that are evaluated include global bending moment, axial tension, and internal pressure. In terms of geometries, the geometric variables affecting the SIFs and the elastic CODs of complex-cracked pipes, i.e., the crack angle of through-wall cracks (TWCs), the crack depth of fully circumferential, internal surface cracks in the inner surface of pipe, and the ratio of pipe mean radius to thickness, are systematically considered in the present FE analyses. The FE analysis procedure employed in the present study has been validated against the existing solutions for the circumferential TWC pipes. Using the present FE results, the shape factors of SIF and elastic COD for complex-cracked pipes are tabulated as a function of geometric variables. The results are applied for closed-form expressions of SIF and elastic COD when the pipe is subjected to simple loading conditions of bending, axial tension, or internal pressure. The proposed closed-form expressions can estimate SIF and elastic COD of complex-cracked pipes within maximum differences of 2.4% and 5.9% with FE results, respectively.

References

References
1.
Pipe Crack Study Group
,
1979
, “
Investigation and Evaluation of Stress–Corrosion Cracking in Piping of Light Water Reactor Plant
,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, Report No. NUREG-0531.
2.
Rudland
,
D.
,
Shim
,
D. J.
,
Zhang
,
T.
, and
Wilkowski
,
G.
,
2007
, “
Implication of Wolf Creek Indications—Final Report
,” Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus, Columbus, OH, Report No. ML072470394.
3.
Hays
,
R. A.
,
Vassilaros
,
M. G.
, and
Gudas
,
J. P.
,
1986
, “
Fracture Analysis of Welded Type 304 Stainless Steel Pipe
,” Vol.
1
, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, Report No. NUREG/CR-4538.
4.
Kramer
,
G.
, and
Papaspyropoulos
,
V.
,
1986
, “
An Assessment of Circumferentially Complex-Cracked Pipe Subjected to Bending
,” U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC, Report No. NUREG/CR-4687.
5.
Rudland
,
D.
,
Benson
,
M.
, and
Shim
,
D. J.
,
2014
, “
Fracture Toughness Behavior of Complex Cracks in Dissimilar Metal Welds
,”
ASME
Paper No. PVP2014-28105.
6.
Rahman
,
S.
,
Brust
,
F. W.
,
Ghadiali
,
N.
, and
Wilkowski
,
G.
,
1998
, “
Crack-Opening-Area Analyses for Circumferential Through-Wall Cracks in Pipes—Part II: Model Validations
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
75
(
5
), pp.
375
396
.
7.
Kim
,
Y. J.
,
Huh
,
N. S.
, and
Kim
,
Y. J.
,
2001
, “
Crack Opening Analysis of Complex Cracked Pipes
,”
Int. J. Fract.
,
111
(
1
), pp.
71
86
.
8.
Dassault Systèmes
,
2011
,
ABAQUS User-Manual Release 6.11
,
Dassault Systèmes
, Providence, RI.
9.
Kim
,
Y. J.
,
Huh
,
N. S.
, and
Kim
,
Y. J.
,
2002
, “
Quantification of Pressure-Induced Hoop Stress Effect on Fracture Analysis of Circumferential Through-Wall Cracked Pipe
,”
Eng. Fract. Mech.
,
69
(
11
), pp.
1249
1267
10.
Shim
,
D. J.
,
Rudland
,
D.
, and
Brust
,
F.
,
2013
, “
Comparison of Through-Wall and Complex Crack Behaviors in Dissimilar Metal Weld Pipe Using Cohesive Zone Modeling
,”
ASME
Paper No. PVP2013-98041.
11.
Takahashi
,
Y.
,
2002
, “
Evaluation of Leak-Before-Break Assessment Methodology for Pipes With a Circumferential Through-Wall Crack. Part I: Stress Intensity Factor and Limit Load Solutions
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
79
(
6
), pp.
393
402
.
12.
Wakai
,
T.
,
Machida
,
H.
,
Arakawa
,
M.
,
Yoshida
,
S.
, and
Enuma
,
Y.
,
2012
, “
Development of Leak-Before Break Assessment Method for Japan Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor Pipe—Part 1 Crack Opening Displacement Assessment of Thin Wall Pipes Made of Modified 9Cr–1Mo Steel
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
135
(
1
), p.
011401
.
13.
Lacire
,
M. H.
,
Chapuliot
,
S.
, and
Marie
,
S.
,
1999
, “
Stress Intensity Factors of Through Wall Cracks in Plates and Tubes With Circumferential Cracks
,”
ASME 1999 Pressure Vessels & Piping Conference
, pp.
13
21
.
14.
Zahoor
,
A.
,
1989
,
Ductile Fracture Handbook
,
Electric Power Research Institute
,
Palo Alto, CA
.
15.
Shim
,
D. J.
,
Kurth
,
E.
,
Brust
,
F.
,
Wilkowski
,
G.
,
Csontos
,
A.
, and
Rudland
,
D.
,
2009
, “
Crack-Opening Displacement and Leak-Rate Calculations for Full Structural Weld Overlays
,”
ASME
Paper No. PVP2009-77966.
You do not currently have access to this content.