The effects of imperfections and nonlinearities on the failure mode and the B2 stress index of thin-walled straight pipes are investigated with finite element (FE) analyses. The analyses were performed for pipes made of an ideal elastic–plastic material and the austenitic steel X6CrNiNb18-10. The B2 index is calculated from the instability bending moments obtained by limit load analyses. The effects of initial imperfections as well as the D/t-ratio and the yield stress on the B2 stress index are studied. As a first result, it is noted that thin-walled straight pipes and imperfections fail due to local plastic buckling. Further analyses show that the type of imperfections, the ovality, the D/t-ratio, and the yield stress have significant influences on the B2 index. The obtained B2 indices for thin-walled straight pipes with D/t > 40 and possible technical imperfections are considerably higher than 1.0. The results have been compared with those of other investigations.

References

References
1.
ASME
,
2013
,
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1
,
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
New York
.
2.
AFCEN
,
2012
,
RCC-M, Design and Conception Rules for Mechanical Components of PWR Nuclear Islands
, French Society for Design, Construction and In-Service Inspection Rules for Nuclear Island Components, Paris (English version).
3.
KTA 3201.2
,
2013
,
Components of the Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary of Light Water Reactors—Part 2: Design and Analysis
,
Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA), Salzgitter
.
4.
KTA 3211.2
,
2013
,
Pressure and Activity Retaining Components of Systems Outside the Primary Circuit—Part 2
:
Design and Analysis, Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA), Salzgitter
.
5.
Rao
,
K. R.
,
2002
,
Companion Guide to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code: Criteria and Commentary on Select Aspects of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes
,
ASME Press
,
New York
.
6.
Elchalakani
,
M.
,
Zhao
,
X. L.
, and
Grzebieta
,
R.
,
2002
, “
Bending Tests to Determine Slenderness Limits for Cold-Formed Circular Hollow Sections
,”
J. Constr. Steel Res.
,
58
(
11
), pp.
1407
1430
.10.1016/S0143-974X(01)00106-7
7.
Sherman
,
D. R.
,
1976
, “
Test of Circular Steel Tubes in Bending
,”
J. Struct. Div. (ASCE)
,
102
(
11
), pp.
2181
2195
.
8.
General Electric Report
,
1978
, “
Functional Capability Criteria for Essential Mark II Piping
,” Report No. NEDO-21985.
9.
Ju
,
G. T.
, and
Kyriakides
,
S.
,
1991
, “
Bifurcation Buckling Versus Limit Load Instabilities of Elastic-Plastic Tubes Under Bending and External Pressure
,”
ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng.
,
113
(
1
), pp.
43
52
.10.1115/1.2919895
10.
Vasilikis
,
D.
,
Karamanos
,
S. A.
,
van Es
,
S. H. J.
, and
Gresnigt
,
A. M.
,
2014
, “
Bending Deformation Capacity of Large-Diameter Spiral-Welded Tubes
,”
ASME
Paper No. IPC2014-33231.10.1115/IPC2014-33231
11.
Kyriakides
,
S.
, and
Corona
,
E.
,
2007
,
Mechanics of Offshore Pipelines, Volume 1: Buckling and Collapse
,
Elsevier
,
Oxford
.
12.
Simitses
,
G. J.
,
1986
, “
Buckling and Postbuckling of Imperfect Cylindrical Shells: A Review
,”
ASME Appl. Mech. Rev.
,
39
(
10
), pp.
1517
1524
.10.1115/1.3149506
13.
Yu
,
L.
, and
Matzen
,
V. C.
,
1999
, “
B2 Stress Index for Elbow Analysis
,”
Nucl. Eng. Des.
,
192
(
2–3
), pp.
261
270
.10.1016/S0029-5493(99)00112-0
14.
Yu
,
L.
,
Tan
,
Y.
, and
Matzen
,
V. C.
,
1999
, “
B2 Stress Indices for Elbows and Straight Pipes Using Finite Element Analysis
,”
15th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology
,
SMiRT-15, Seoul
, Vol.
IV
, pp.
41
48
.
15.
Matzen
, V
. C.
, and
Tan
,
Y.
,
2000
, “
The History of the B2 Stress Index and a New Margin-Consistent Procedure for Its Calculation
,”
2000 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference
,
Seattle, WA
, PVP-Vol.
399
, pp.
251
258
.
16.
Ghosh
,
S.
, and
Roy
,
P.
,
2012
, “
Quantification of the Uncertainty in Stress Index B2 for Pipe Bends Subjected to Out-of-Plane Bending
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
95
(
2
), pp.
24
30
.10.1016/j.ijpvp.2012.05.003
17.
ABAQUS
,
Version 6.13, SIMULIA
,
Dassault SystÓmes Americas Corp.
,
Waltham
.
18.
Mutz
,
A.
,
2011
, “
Structural Assessment of Piping Components and Systems in Energy Conversion Facilities Considering the Real Material Characteristic
,” Ph.D. dissertation, Materials Testing Institute, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart.
19.
Houliara
,
S.
, and
Karamanos
,
S. A.
,
2011
, “
Buckling of Thin-Walled Long Steel Cylinders Subjected to Bending
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
133
(
1
), p.
011201
.10.1115/1.4002902
20.
ASTM A 530/A530 M
,
2012
,
Standard Specification for General Requirements for Specialized Carbon and Alloy Steel Pipe
, ASTM International, West Conshohocken.
21.
Veerappan
,
A. R.
,
Shanmugam
,
S.
, and
Soundrapandian
,
S.
,
2010
, “
The Accepting of Pipe Bends With Ovality and Thinning Using Finite Element Method
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
132
(
3
), p.
031204
.10.1115/1.4001423
22.
Dama
,
E.
,
Gresnigt
,
A. M.
, and
Karamanos
,
S. A.
,
2006
, “
Failure of Locally Buckled Pipelines
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
129
(
2
), pp.
272
279
.10.1115/1.2716431
23.
Guo
,
L.
,
Yang
,
S.
, and
Jiao
,
H.
,
2013
, “
Behavior of Thin-Walled Circular Hollow Section Tubes Subjected to Bending
,”
Thin-Walled Struct.
,
73
, pp.
281
289
.10.1016/j.tws.2013.08.014
You do not currently have access to this content.