In bolted joints, bolts are tightened to a uniform preload in order to improve their operational behavior. This preload is not easy to achieve due to several phenomena that occur during the tightening sequence; in the case of wind generator bolted joints, which present a gap between the contact surfaces of the flanges, the elastic interaction is by far the most prejudicial of them. As a consequence, the tightening sequence is very costly, typically consisting on a large number of passes. Based on a metamodel created in previous work, this work presents methodology for the optimization of the tightening sequence, which consists on calculating the load to be applied to each bolt so as to achieve the target uniform preload at the end of the sequence in only one pass or two at the most. This methodology is based on optimization methods used for pressure vessel bolted joints has provided satisfactory results (validated via FE analyses) with a very low computational cost.

References

References
1.
Bickford
,
J. H.
, and
Nassar
,
S.
,
1998
,
Handbook of Bolts and Bolted Joints
,
Marcel Dekker
,
New York
.
2.
Shigley
,
J. E.
,
1977
,
Mechanical Engineering Design
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
3.
Norton
,
R. L.
,
2006
,
Machine Design: An Integrated Approach
,
Prentice Hall
,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
.
4.
Juvinall
,
R. C.
, and
Marshek
,
K. M.
,
2000
,
Fundamentals of Machine Component Design
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
5.
Deutschman
,
A. D.
,
1975
,
Machine Design: Theory and Practice
,
Prentice Hall
,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
.
6.
Hau
,
E.
,
2000
,
Wind-Turbines: Fundamentals, Technologies, Application, Economics
,
Springer
,
New York
.
7.
Harrison
,
R.
,
Hau
,
E.
, and
Snel
,
H.
,
2000
,
Large Wind Turbines: Design and Economics
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
8.
Goddard
,
D. L.
, and
Bibel
,
G. D.
,
1994
, “
Achieving a Selected Load Distribution in the Bolted Joint of a Cylinder Head of Highly Variable Stiffness and Contact Geometry
,”
International Congress and Exposition
,
Detroit, MI
.
9.
Bibel
,
G. D.
, and
Ezell
,
R. M.
,
1996
,
Bolted Flange Assembly: Preliminary Elastic Interaction Data and Improved Bolt-Up Procedures
, Vol.
408
,
WRC Bulletin
, New York.
10.
Ezell
,
R. M.
,
1992
, “
The Analytical and Experimental Study of the Elastic Interaction in a Bolted, Flanged, Gasketed Joint
,” thesis presented to the Graduate Faculty of the University of Akron, OH.
11.
Bibel
,
G. D.
, and
Ezell
,
R. M.
,
1992
, “
An Improved Flange Bolt-Up Procedure Using Experimentally Determined Elastic Interaction Coefficients
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
114
(
4
), pp.
439
443
.10.1115/1.2929252
12.
Bibel
,
G. D.
,
1994
,
Method of Tightening Threaded Fasteners
, U.S. Patent No. 5,278,775.
13.
Fukuoka
,
T.
, and
Takaki
,
T.
,
2004
, “
Effective Bolting up Procedure Using Finite Element Analysis and Elastic Interaction Coefficient Method
,”
ASME/JSME 2004 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Analysis of Bolted Joints
, Vol.
478
, Paper No. PVP2004-2634.
14.
Nassar
,
S. A.
,
Wu
,
Z.
, and
Yang
,
X.
,
2008
, “
A New Tightening Methodology for Gasketed Joints Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis
,”
ASME 2008 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference
, Paper No. PVP2008-61115.
15.
Alkelani
,
A. A.
,
Nassar
,
S. A.
, and
Housari
,
B. A.
,
2009
, “
Formulation of Elastic Interaction Between Bolts During the Tightening of Flat-Face Gasketed Joints
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
131
, p.
021004
.10.1115/1.3042149
16.
Nassar
,
S. A.
, and
Yang
,
X.
,
2009
, “
Novel Formulation of Bolt Elastic Interaction in Gasketed Joints
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
131
(2), p.
051204
.10.1115/1.3151814
17.
Nassar
,
S. A.
,
Wu
,
Z.
, and
Yang
,
X.
,
2010
, “
Achieving Uniform Clamp Load in Gasketed Bolted Joints Using a Nonlinear Finite Element Model
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
132
(3), p.
031205
.10.1115/1.4001040
18.
Abasolo
,
M.
,
Aguirrebeitia
,
J.
,
Avilés
,
R.
,
Fernández de Bustos
,
I.
,
2011
, “
A Tetraparametric Metamodel for the Analysis and Design of Bolting Sequences for Wind Generator Flanges
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
133
(
4
), p.
041202
.10.1115/1.4002541
19.
Nassar
,
S. A.
, and
Abboud
,
A.
,
2009
, “
An Improved Stiffness Model for Bolted Joints
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
131
(
12
), p.
121001
.10.1115/1.4000212
20.
Bouzid
,
A.
, and
Nechache
,
A.
,
2010
, “
The Modelling of Bolted Flange Joints Used With Disc Springs and Tube Spacers to Reduce Relaxation
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
87
(
12
), pp.
730
736
.10.1016/j.ijpvp.2010.09.001
You do not currently have access to this content.