Damage to buried pipelines caused by local amplification of seismic ground motion in highly nonuniform grounds is not yet fully understood. The development of methods to evaluate the amplification of ground motion in complex ground structures is thus desirable. Here, we report large-scale nonlinear seismic ground response analysis using a 3D nonlinear finite element method (FEM) and attempt to reproduce observed seismic ground motion. We also discuss the strain amplification processes and their effects on buried pipelines in detail. The findings are expected to aid in improving the seismic resistance of buried pipelines.

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