The stress states of elbow pipes are complex and different from those of straight pipes. Manson's universal slope method cannot predict the low-cycle fatigue lives of elbow pipes under combined cyclic bending and internal pressure. In this work, fatigue tests and finite element analysis showed that the multi-axial stress factor (i.e., ratio of axial stress to hoop stress) is quite high at elbows. This paper proposes a revised Manson's universal slope method that considers the multi-axial stress factor to predict the low-cycle fatigue lives of elbows under combined cyclic bending and internal pressure with considerably high accuracy.

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