Bolted flange joints are extensively used to connect pressure vessels and piping equipment together. They are simple structures that offer the possibility of disassembly. However, they often experience leakage problems due to a loss of tightness as a result of a nonuniform distribution of gasket contact stresses in the radial and circumferential directions. Many factors contribute to such a failure; the flange and gasket stiffness, bolt spacing or a combination of them are to name a few. In our recent papers, the effect of bolt spacing was investigated based on the theory of circular beams on linear elastic foundation and on the theory of rings on nonlinear elastic foundation. The variations of the contact stress between bolts were of a concern. This paper is an extension of the work in which an analytical solution, based on the theory of circular beams resting in a linear elastic foundation, has been developed to determine a formulae for flange bolt spacing. The relationship between bolt spacing, gasket compression modulus, and flange thickness is deduced from an analysis that considers a maximum tolerated gasket contact stress difference between any two bolts.

References

References
1.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
,
2001
, Section VIII, Division 2, Appendix 2, “Rules for Bolted Flange Connections With Ring Type Gaskets.”
2.
EN 1591-1:2001+A1:2009, 2009
, “Flanges and Their Joints—Design Rules for Gasketed Circular Flange Connections Part 1: Calculation Method.”
3.
Waters
,
E. O.
,
Rossheim
,
D. B.
,
Wesstrom
,
D. B.
, and
Williams
,
F. S. G.
,
1937
, “
Formulas for Stresses in Bolted Flanged Connections
,”
Transactions of American Society of Mechanical Engineers
,
59
(3), pp.
161
169
.
4.
Waters
,
E. O.
,
Rossheim
,
D. B.
,
Wesstrom
,
D. B.
, and
Williams
,
F. S. G.
,
1949
,
Development of General Formulas for Bolted Flanges
,
Taylor Forge and Pipe Works
,
Chicago, IL
.
5.
G&W Taylor-Bonney Division
,
1978
,
Modern Flange Design, Bulletin 502, VII ed.
,
Taylor Forge
,
Southfield, MI
.
6.
George
P. B.
,
1959
,
Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association
,
TEMA
,
New York
.
7.
M'hadheb
,
M.
,
2005
, “
Effet de L'Espacement des Boulons Sur la Distribution des Contraintes Dans Un Assemblage À Brides Boulonnées Muni d'un Joint d’Étanchéité
,” Master thesis, École de technologie supérieure, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
8.
Nechache
,
A.
, and
Bouzid
,
A.
,
2007
, “
Creep Analysis of Bolted Flange Joints
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessel Piping
,
84
(
3
), pp.
185
194
.10.1016/j.ijpvp.2006.06.004
9.
Lehnhoff
,
T. F.
,
McKay
,
M. L.
, and
Bellora
,
V. A.
,
1992
, “
Member Stiffness and Bolt Spacing of Bolted Joints
,”
Recent Advances in Structural Mechanics, Pressure Vessels and Piping Division, PVP, American Society of Mechanical Engineers
, Vol.
248
, pp.
63
72
.
10.
McKee
,
R.
, and
Reddy
,
H.
,
1995
, “
Apparent Stiffness of a Bolted Flange
,”
Computer Integrated Concurrent Design Conference, Design Engineering Division, DE, American Society of Mechanical Engineers
, Vol.
83
(
2
), Part 2, pp.
877
883
.
11.
Roberts
,
I.
,
1950
, “
Gaskets and Bolted Joints
,”
Transactions of ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
17
(
2
), pp.
169
179
.
12.
Kilborn
,
D. F.
,
1975
, “
Spacing of Bolts in Flanged Joints
,”
Transactions - The Institute of Marine Engineers
,
87A
(
7
), pp.
339
342
.
13.
Koves
,
W. J.
,
2008
, “
Flange Joint Bolt Spacing Requirements
,”
Proceedings of 2007 ASME Pressure Vessel and Piping Division Conference, Design and Analysis
, Vol.
3
, pp.
3
10
.
14.
Bouzid
,
A.
, and
Champliaud
,
H.
,
2004
, “
Contact Stress Evaluation of Nonlinear Gaskets Using Dual Kriging Interpolation
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
126
(
4
), pp.
445
450
.10.1115/1.1806444
15.
Volterra, E., and Gaines, J. H.,
1974
,
Advanced Strength of Materials
,
Prentice-Hall, Inc.
,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
, pp.
379
424
.
16.
Do
,
T. D.
,
Bouzid
,
A.
, and
Dao
,
T. M.
,
2010
, “
Effect of Bolt Spacing on the Circumferential Distribution of Gasket Contact Stress in Bolted Flange Joints
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
133
(
4
), p.
041205
.10.1115/1.4002924
17.
Do
,
T. D.
,
Bouzid
,
A.
, and
Dao
,
T. M.
,
2010
, “
On the Use of the Theory of Ring on Non-Linear Elastic Foundation to Study the Effect of Bolt Spacing in Bolted Flange Joints
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
134
(
6
), p. 060203.
18.
Braun
,
M.
,
1983
,
Differential Equations and Their Applications
, 3rd ed.,
Springer-Verlag
,
New York
.
19.
Montgomery
,
D. C.
,
2009
,
An Introduction to Statistical Quality Control
,
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
,
New York
, pp.
150
169
.
20.
Matlab software
,
2005
, version 7.0.4.365, Release 14.
You do not currently have access to this content.