According to the function and operating characteristics of water hydraulic relief valves in a high-pressure water pipe system, a novel one-stage relief valve with a one-way damper was designed and analyzed in this study. The one-way damper consists of a damping chamber and a check valve. Moreover, a damping orifice is bored along the axis of the check-valve spool. When the main spool moves to open the valve port, the check valve is fully open, and the damping orifice generates no damping force on the main spool; otherwise, the check valve is completely closed, and the damping orifice produces a damping force on the main spool. Furthermore, based on a mathematical model describing the dynamic characteristics of the relief valve, the effect of the one-way damper on the dynamic characteristics of the relief valve was simulated and analyzed, and certain optimal parameters of the one-way damper were obtained (e.g., the diameter and length of the damping orifice and the initial volume of the damping chamber). Lastly, the experimental results obtained from a prototype of the relief valve, which was manufactured to the optimal dimensions, demonstrated that the pressure overshoot was 7.5%, the response time was 1.43 × 10−2 s, and the transition time was 3.9 × 10−2 s. Thus, the one-way damper could significantly improve the dynamic characteristics of the relief valve.

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