Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with fluid transients' accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate fluid transients to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein. Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in piping systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the piping system is expected, and explosive conditions may occur. Pipe ruptures in nuclear reactor cooling systems were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany (Fig. 1
Issue Section:Technical Briefs
Keywords:hydrogen, explosions, nuclear facility, nuclear reactor, power plant safety, reactor safety, off-shore drilling, oil drilling, Gulf oil spill/disaster, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Fukushima hydrogen explosions, fluid transients, water hammer, fluid transients, adiabatic compression
Principles of Combustion,
Wiley and Sons,
Indianapolis, IN., pp.
Hydrogen Ignition Mechanism for Explosions in Nuclear Facility Pipe Systems,
American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
New York, Paper No. PVP2010-25261.
J. E. A.
Allyn and Bacon, Inc.,
Revisiting Anomalous Explosion of Hydrogen and Oxygen Mixture From a Viewpoint of Cold Fusion,
Japan CF Research Society, JCF5,
Nuclear Energy Agency, Committee on Safety of Nuclear Installations, NEA/CSNI/R, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Le Seine, St-Germain, France, pp.
Detonations in H –NO –CH –NH –O –N Mixtures,” California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, Technical Report No. FM97-3.
Mechanism and Modeling of Nitrogen Chemistry in Combustion,”
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science,
Philadelphia, PA, Vol. 15, pp. 287–338.
Self-Ignition and Flame Propagation of High-Pressure Hydrogen Jet During Sudden Discharge From a Pipe,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy,
Integrity of Pipes and Vessels Subject to Internal Explosions, An Overview,”
Savannah River Remediation,
Aiken, South Carolina, pp. 1–11.
NRC Information Notice 2002-15: Hydrogen Combustion Events in Foreign BWR Piping, 2002, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D. C.
Resolution of Generic Safety Issues: Issue 195: Hydrogen Combustion in BWR Piping, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2012, Washington, D. C.
Resolution of Generic Safety Issues: Issue 198: Hydrogen Combustion in PWR Piping, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2012, Washington, D. C.
Proceedings of American Water Works Association, Vol.
Denver, CO, pp.
User's Manual for Locksim,
Tennessee Valley Authority,
Chattanooga, Tennessee, pp.
Fluid Transients in Systems,
Upper Saddle River, NJ, pp.
Fluid Mechanics, Water Hammer, Dynamic Stresses, and Piping Design,
New York, pp.
Technical Evaluation: 300 Area Steam Line Valve Accident,
Richland, WA, pp.
Copyright © 2013 by ASME