Weld residual stresses in nuclear power plants can lead to cracking concerns caused by stress corrosion. Many factors can lead to the development of the weld residual stresses, and the distributions of the stress through the wall thickness can vary markedly depending on the weld processing parameters, nozzle and pipe geometries, among other factors. Hence, understanding the residual stress distribution is important in order to evaluate the reliability of pipe and nozzle welded joints. This paper represents an examination of the weld residual stress distributions which occur in different nozzles. The geometries considered here are large diameter thick wall pipe and nozzles. The detailed weld residual stress predictions for these nozzles are summarized. These results are categorized and organized in this paper and general trends for the causes of the distributions are established. The solutions are obtained using several different constitutive models including kinematic hardening, isotropic hardening, and mixed hardening model. Necessary fabrication procedures such as weld repair, overlay, and postweld heat treatment are also considered. The residual stress field can therefore be used to perform a crack growth and instability analysis. Some general discussions and comments are given in the paper.

References

References
1.
Brust
,
F. W.
,
Zhang
,
T.
,
Shim
D.-J.
,
Wilkowski
,
G. M.
, and
Rudland
,
D.
,
2011
, “
Modeling Crack Growth in Weld Residual Stress Fields Using the Finite Element Alternating Method
,”
Proceedings of the ASME 2011 Pressure Vessels & Piping Division Conference
,
Baltimore, MD
,
July 17–21
, Paper PVP2011-57935.
2.
Zhang
,
T.
,
Brust
,
F.
,
Wilkowski
,
G.
,
Rudland
,
D.
, and
Csontos
,
A.
,
2009
, “
Welding Residual Stress and Multiple Flaw Evaluation for Reactor Pressure Vessel Head Replacement Welds With Alloy 52
,”
2009 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference
,
Prague, Czech Republic
,
July 26–30, 2009
.
3.
Wang
,
Y.-Y.
,
Feng
,
Z.
,
Cheng
,
W.
, and
Liu
,
S.
,
1988
, “
Residual Stress Effects on Crack Driving Force in Multipass Welds
,”
Pressure Vessel and Piping (PVP) Conference
,
San Diego, CA
,
July 1998
.
4.
Tsai
,
C. L.
,
Park
,
S. C.
, and
Cheng
,
W.
,
1999
, “
Welding Distortion of a Thin-Plate Panel Structure
,”
Weld. J. (Miami, FL, U.S.)
,
78
(
5
), pp.
156s
165s
.
5.
Feng
,
Z.
,
Wang
,
X.
,
Hubbard
,
C. R.
, and
Spooner
,
S.
,
1996
, “
A FE Model for Residual Stresses in Repair Welds
,” Residual Stresses in Design, Fabrication, Assessment and Repair, ASME PVP-Vol.
327
, pp.
119
125
.
6.
Zhang
,
T.
,
Wilkowski
,
G.
,
Rudland
,
D.
,
Brust
,
F.
,
Mehta
,
H. S.
, and
Sommerville
,
D. V.
,
2008
, “
Weld-Overlay Analyses—An Investigation of the Effect of Weld Sequencing
,”
2008 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference
,
Chicago, IL
,
July 27–31, 2008
.
7.
Brust
,
F.
,
Zhang
,
T.
,
Shim
,
D.J.
,
Kalyanam
,
S.
,
Wilkowski
,
G.
,
Smith
,
M.
, and
Goodfellow
,
A.
,
2010
, “
Summary of Weld Residual Stress Analyses for Dissimilar Metal Weld Nozzles
,”
2010 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division/K-PVP Conference
,
Bellevue, Washington
,
July 18–22, 2010
.
8.
Zhang
,
T.
,
Brust
,
F.
,
Wilkowski
,
G.
,
Ranganath
,
S.
,
Tsai
,
Y.
,
Huang
,
C.
, and
Liu
,
R.
2010
, “
Weld Residual Stress Analysis and the Effects of Structural Overlay on Various Nuclear Power Plant Nozzles
,”
2010 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division/K-PVP Conference
,
Bellevue, Washington
,
July 18–22, 2010
.
9.
Rudland
,
D.
,
Zhang
,
T.
,
Wilkowski
,
G.
, and
Csontos
,
A.
,
2008
, “
Welding Residual Stress Solutions for Dissimilar Metal Surge Line Nozzles Welds
,”
2008 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference
,
Chicago, IL
,
July 27–31, 2008
.
10.
Rudland
,
D.
,
Chen
,
Y.
,
Zhang
,
T.
,
Wilkowski
,
G.
,
Broussard
,
J.
, and
White
,
G.
,
2007
, “
Comparison of Welding Residual Stress Solutions for Control Rod Drive Mechanism Nozzles
,”
2007 ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division Conference
,
San Antonio, TX
,
July 22–26, 2007
.
11.
Goldak
,
J.
,
Chakravarti
,
A.
, and
Bibby
,
M.
,
1984
, “
A New Finite Element Model for Welding Heat Sources
,”
Metall. Mater. Trans. B
,
15B
, pp.
299
305
.10.1007/BF02667333
12.
abaqus 6.8-1 (6.10-1), Dassault Simulia, 2008–2010.
13.
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Division of Engineering, Component Integrity Branch: International Weld Residual Stress Round Robin Problem Statement Phase IV—Mockup, 2009.
14.
Zhang
,
T.
,
Shim
,
D-J.
,
Kalyanam
,
S.
,
Brust
,
F.
,
Hattery
,
G.
, and
Wilkowski
,
G.
,
2010
, “
Weld Residual Stress Analysis for Sizewell B Power Station Steam Generator and Pressuriser Safe End Welds
,” Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus Report 09-C133-01-T2 Revision 4.
15.
Withers
,
P.
, and
Bhadeshia
,
H.
,
2001
, “
Residual Stress Part 1—Measurement Techniques
,”
Mater. Sci. Technol.
,
17
(
4
), pp.
355
365
.10.1179/026708301101509980
16.
George
,
D.
,
Kingston
,
E.
, and
Smith
,
D.
,
2002
, “
Measurement of Through Thickness Stresses Using Small Holes
,”
J. Strain Anal.
,
372
, pp.
125
139
.10.1243/0309324021514899
17.
Mahmoudi
,
A.
,
Stefanescu
,
D.
,
Hossain
,
S.
,
Truman
,
C.
, and
Smith
,
D.
,
2006
, “
Measurement and Prediction of Residual Stress Field Generated by Side-Punching
,”
J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
1283
, pp.
451
459
.10.1115/1.2203103
You do not currently have access to this content.