Despite the fact that multipass shell-and-tube heat exchangers operating at high temperature are subject to frequent problems related to flange sealing, there is neither detailed explanations for the reasons of the failures nor an adequate solution to this problem. Specific geometry of multipass heat exchangers and the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet fluids is responsible for the existence of a thermal circumferential gradient at the shell-to-channel bolted joint. However, existing flange design methods do not address nonaxisymmetrical temperature loading of the flanged joint assembly. The circumferential thermal gradient, as the cause of frequent failures to seal the flanged joints, is ignored. This paper outlines the analytical modeling of a flanged joint with a tube sheet of a multipass heat exchanger subjected to a nonaxisymmetrical thermal loading. A shell-and-tube heat exchanger of 51 in. diameter with cocurrent flow was used for analysis. The main steps of the theoretical analysis used for the determination of the circumferential temperature profiles and the thermal expansion displacements and distortions of the bolted joint components are given. The results from the proposed analytical model are compared with those obtained from finite element models.

References

References
1.
Winter
,
J. R.
1988, “
Use Ultrasonic Extensometer to Determine the Variations in the Assembly Bolt Loads Problem Industrial Flange
,”
Exp. Tech.
,
12
(
11
), pp.
6
11
.
2.
Winter
,
J. R.
, 1990, “
Gasket Selection Flowchart
,”
Proceeding of the 2nd International Symposium on Fluid Sealing
,
La Baule
,
France
, pp.
267
310
.
3.
Winter
,
J. R.
, and
Coppari
,
L. A.
1996, “
Flange Thermal Parameter Study and Gasket Selection
,”
Proceedings of the International Conference on Pressure Vessel Technology
, ICPVT-8, Design and Analysis, Vol.
2
, pp.
141
174
.
4.
Bouzid
,
A.
,
Chaaban
,
A.
, and
Bazergui
,
A.
, 1995, “
The Effect of Gasket Creep Relaxation on the Leakage Tightness of Bolted Flanged Joints
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
117
, pp.
71
78
.
5.
Bouzid
,
A.
,
Chaaban
,
A.
, and
Bazergui
,
A.
, 1997, “
An Accurate Method of Evaluating Relaxation in Bolted Flanged Connections
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
119
(
1
), pp.
10
17
.
6.
Bouzid
A.
,
Nechache
A.
, and
Brown
W.
, 2002, “
The Effect of Steady State Thermal Loading on the Deflections of a Flange Joint with a Cover Plate
,”
Proceedings of the 2002 ASME-PVP conference
, Analysis of Bolted Joints, Paper No. PVP2002-1093,
Vancouver
,
Canada
, PVP-Vol.
433
, pp.
153
162
.
7.
Bouzid
A.
, and
Nechache
,
A.
, 2004, “
Creep Modeling in Bolted Flange Joints
,”
ASME/JSME-PVP Conference
, Analysis of Bolted Joints, Paper No. PVP2004-2621,
San Diego
,
California
, PVP-Vol.
478
, pp.
49
56
.
8.
Bouzid
A.
, and
Nechache
A.
, 2005, “
Thermally Induced Deflections in Bolted Flanged Connections
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
127
(
4
), pp.
394
401
.
9.
Bouzid
A.
, and
Nechache
A.
, 2005, “
An Analytical Solution for Evaluating Gasket Stress Change in Bolted Flange Connections Subjected to High Temperature Loading
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
127
(
4
), pp.
414
422
.
10.
Brown
W.
,
Derenne
M.
, and
Bouzid
A.
, 2000, “
Determination of the Steady State Operating Temperature of Pressure Vessel Flange Components: Part 1—Analytical Methods
,”
Proceedings of the 2000 ASME/PVP Conference
, Analysis of Bolted Joints,
Seattle
,
Washington
, PVP-Vol.
405
, pp.
95
104
.
11.
Brown
W.
,
Derenne
M.
, and
Bouzid
A.
, 2000, “
Determination of the Steady State Operating Temperature of Pressure Vessel Flange Components: Part 2—Simplified Methods
,”
Proceedings of the 2000 ASME/PVP Conference
, Analysis of Bolted Joints,
Seattle
,
Washington
, PVP-Vol.
405
, pp.
105
113
.
12.
Brown
W.
,
Derenne
M.
, and
Bouzid
A.
, 2001, “
Determination of the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Selected Gasket Types
,”
Proceedings of 2001 ASME/PVP Conference
, Analysis of Bolted Joints,
Atlanta
,
Georgia
, PVP-Vol.
419
, pp.
35
43
.
13.
Brown
,
W.
, 2004, “
Efficient Assembly of Pressure Vessel Bolted Joints
,”
ASME/JSME 2004 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference
, July 25–29,
San Diego
,
California
, pp.
163
168
.
14.
Brown
,
W.
, and
Brodzinski
,
R.
, 2005, “
Case Study of Temperature Analysis Performed on a 45-inch Diameter Heat Exchanger Flange
,”
Proceedings of the 2005 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference
,
Computer Technology, Denver
,
Colorado
, Vol.
2
, pp.
67
76
.
15.
Nechache
,
A.
, 2002, “
Effet de l’expansion thermique sur la redistribution de la charge de boulons dans les assemblages avec les brides boulonnées
,”
Master’s degree thesis, Ecole de technologie superieure
,
Montreal
,
Canada
.
16.
Nechache
A.
, and
Bouzid
A.
, 2002, “
The Redistribution of Load in Bolted Gasketed Joints Subjected to Steady State Thermal Loading
,”
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Nuclear Engineering—ICONE 10, Arlington
,
Virginia
, Paper No. ICONE10-22194, pp.
1
9
.
17.
Nechache
A.
, and
Bouzid
A.
, 2003, “
The Determination of the Load Changes in Bolted Gasketed Joints Subjected to Elevated Temperature
,”
Proceedings of the 2003 ASME-PVP conference
, Analysis of Bolted Joints, Paper No. PVP2003-1883,
Cleveland
,
Ohio
, PVP-Vol.
457
, pp.
139
148
.
18.
Roetzel
,
W.
, and
Xuan
,
Y.
, 1992, “
Transient Behaviour of Multipass Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
35
(
3
), pp.
703
710
.
19.
Roetzel
,
W.
, and
Y.
Xuan.
, 1993, “
Transient Behaviour of Shell and Tubes Heat Exchangers
,”
Chem. Eng. Technol.
,
16
(
5
), pp.
296
302
.
20.
Xuan
,
Y.
, and
Roetzel.
W.
, 1993, “
Stationary and Dynamic Simulation of Multipass Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers with the Dispersion Model for Both Fluids
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
36
(
17
), pp.
4221
4231
.
21.
Xuan
,
Y.
, 1996, “
Transient Analysis of Multipass Crossflow Heat Exchangers
,”
Heat and Mass Transfer
,
Springer
, Heidelberg, Vol.
31
(4), pp.
223
230
.
22.
Carslaw
,
H. S.
, and
Jaeger
,
J. C.
1959,
Conduction of Heat in Solids
,
2nd ed.
,
Oxford University Press
,
London
,
510
p.
23.
Brown
,
W.
, 2001, “
The Effect of Thermal Transient on Flange Sealing
,”
Ph.D. thesis
,
Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal
, Canada.
24.
Ozisik
,
A.
, and
Necati
,
M.
, 1985,
Heat Transfer: Basic Approach
,
3rd ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
NY
,
675
p.
25.
Ozisik
,
A.
, and
Necati
,
M.
, 1993,
Heat Conduction
,
2nd ed.
,
Wiley-Interscience
,
692
p.
You do not currently have access to this content.