This work includes results of studies and experiments conducted on heat exchanger (heater) tubes of an energy production unit to determine the causes of their fractures. Experiments indicated that the main mechanism of such tube fractures is the simultaneous presence of relatively high vibrational bending stresses and corrosive agents. It was shown that the role of a vibrational bending stress due to high velocity of input steam is very impressive. The important point in this study was the branching of corrosion fatigue cracks during their growth in presence of NaOH and chloride ions. The use of impingement plates and water chemistry control were the most appropriate methods to prevent such failures.

References

References
1.
Brown
,
J.
,
Ray
,
N. J.
, and
Gemmill
,
M. G.
, 1991,
Modern Power Station Practice, Vol. E: Chemistry and Metallurgy
,
Pergamon, British Electricity International
,
England
.
2.
Port
,
R. D.
, and
Herro
,
H. M.
, 1991,
NALCO Guide to Boiler Failure Analysis
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
3.
Cramer
,
S. D.
, 2006,
ASM Handbook
: Vol.
13B
: Corrosion,
ASM International
,
Materials Park, Ohio
.
4.
Jones
,
D. A.
, 1996,
Principles and Prevention of Corrosion
,
2nd ed.
,
Prentice Hall
,
Englewood, NJ
.
5.
McEvily
,
A. J.
, 1990,
Atlas of Stress Corrosion and Corrosion Fatigue Curves
,
ASM International
, Materials Park, Ohio.
6.
Roberge
,
P. R.
, 2000,
Handbook of Corrosion Engineering
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
7.
Perdomo
,
J.
,
Singh
,
P. M.
, and
Mahmood
,
J.
, 2003, “
Stress Corrosion Cracking and Corrosion Fatigue of a Duplex Stainless Steel in White Water Environments
,”
CORROSION 2003
, Paper No. 03522,
NACE International
,
San Diego Ca.
, pp.
1
18
.
8.
TEMA, 1988,
Standards of Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association
,
7th ed.
,
TEMA, Tarrytown
,
New York
.
9.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2004,
Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components
, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code: Section XI,
ASME
,
New York
.
10.
Wachel
,
J. C.
, 1995, “
Displacement Method for Determining Acceptable Piping Vibration Amplitudes
,”
ASME/JSME Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference
, Paper No. 72, Honolulu,
ASME
,
New York
, pp.
197
208
.
11.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2008,
Process Piping
, ANSI/ASME B31.3,
ASME
,
New York
.
12.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2007,
Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code: Section VIII- Division 2,
ASME
,
New York
.
13.
O’Donnell
,
D. J.
, 2008, “
Code Design and Evaluation for Cyclic Loading
,”
Companion Guide to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
,
3rd ed.
,
K. R.
Rao
, ed.,
ASME Press
,
New York
, pp.
711
744
.
14.
Chopra
,
O. K.
, and
Shack
,
W. J.
, 2001, “
Environmental Effects on Fatigue Crack Initiation in Piping and Pressure Vessel Steels
,” NUREG/CR-6717, Argonne National Laboratory.
15.
Weaver
,
D. S.
,
Ziada
,
S.
,
Au-Yang
,
M. K.
, and
Chen
,
S. S.
, 2000, “
Flow-Induced Vibrations in Power and Process Plant Components-Progress and Prospects
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
122
(
3
), pp.
339
348
.
16.
Huang
,
C. C.
,
Hsieh
,
J. Sh.
,
Chen
,
P. Ch.
, and
Lee
,
Ch. H.
, 2008, “
Flow Analysis and Flow Induced Vibration Evaluation for Low-Pressure Feedwater Heater of a Nuclear Power Plant
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
85
(
9
), pp.
616
619
.
17.
Chenoweth
,
J. M.
, 1982, “
Design of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers to Avoid Flow-Induced Vibration
,”
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference of Heat Transfer
,
West Germany
, Vol.
6
, pp.
173
178
.
18.
Vincent
,
B. T.
,
Hassan
,
M. A.
, and
Rogers
,
R. J.
, 2009, “
A Probabilistic Assessment Technique Applied to a Cracked Heat Exchanger Tube Subjected to Flow-Induced Vibration
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
131
(
3
),
p.
031305
.
You do not currently have access to this content.