This paper presents a metamodel that enables estimation of the elastic interaction that occurs in the bolted joints of a wind generator tower during the tightening sequence. In this kind of joint, there is a gap between the contact surfaces of the flanges. The metamodel is composed of four parameters, which are enough to simulate the response of the flange under the tightening loads of the bolts. Even though the behavior of the joint is nonlinear because of the gap, the parameters are obtained from two simple linear elastic analyses of a finite element (FE) model of the flange. The corresponding loss of load in the bolts has been estimated for various sequences with minimum computational cost. Thus, there is no need for costly experimental measurements or nonlinear FE simulations.

1.
Bickford
,
J. H.
, and
Nassar
,
S.
, 1998,
Handbook of Bolts and Bolted Joints
,
Marcel Dekker
,
New York
.
2.
Shigley
,
J. E.
, 1977,
Mechanical Engineering Design
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
3.
Norton
,
R. L.
, 2006,
Machine Design: An Integrated Approach
,
Prentice-Hall
,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
.
4.
Juvinall
,
R. C.
, and
Marshek
,
K. M.
, 2000,
Fundamentals of Machine Component Design
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
5.
Deutschman
,
A. D.
, 1975,
Machine Design: Theory and Practice
,
Prentice-Hall
,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
.
6.
Hau
,
E.
, 2000,
Wind-Turbines: Fundamentals, Technologies, Application, Economics
,
Springer
,
New York
.
7.
Harrison
,
R.
,
Hau
,
E.
, and
Snel
,
H.
, 2000,
Large Wind Turbines: Design and Economics
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
8.
Goddard
,
D. L.
, and
Bilbel
,
G. D.
, 1994, “
Achieving a Selected Load Distribution in the Bolted Joint of a Cylinder Head of Highly Variable Stiffness and Contact Geometry
,”
International Congress and Exposition
, Detroit, MI.
9.
Bibel
,
G. D.
, and
Ezell
,
R. M.
, 1996, “
Bolted Flange Assembly: Preliminary Elastic Interaction Data and Improved Bolt-Up Procedures
,” WRC Bulletin, 408.
10.
Bibel
,
G. D.
, 1992, “
Experimental and Analytical Study of Elastic Interaction in a Pipe Flange
,” Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Akron, OH.
11.
Ezell
,
R. M.
, 1992, “
The Analytical and Experimental Study of the Elastic Interaction in a Bolted, Flanged, Gasketed Joint
,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Akron, OH.
12.
Bibel
,
G. D.
, and
Ezell
,
R. M.
, 1992, “
An Improved Flange Bolt-Up Procedure Using Experimentally Determined Elastic Interaction Coefficients
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
0094-9930,
114
(
4
), pp.
439
443
.
13.
Bibel
,
G. D.
, 1994, “
Method of Tightening Threaded Fasteners
,” U.S. Patent No. 5,278,775.
14.
Fukuoka
,
T.
, and
Takaki
,
T.
, 2001, “
Finite Element Simulation of Bolt up Process of Pipe Flange Connections
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
0094-9930,
123
, pp.
282
287
.
15.
Fukuoka
,
T.
, and
Takaki
,
T.
, 2002, “
Systematical FE Analysis of Bolt Assembly Process of Pipe Flange Connections
,”
PVP (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.)
0277-027X,
433
, pp.
147
152
.
16.
Fukuoka
,
T.
, and
Takaki
,
T.
, 2003, “
Finite Element Simulation of Bolt up Process of Pipe Flange Connections With Spiral Wound Gasket
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
0094-9930,
125
, pp.
371
378
.
17.
Fukuoka
,
T.
, and
Takaki
,
T.
, 2004, “
Effective Bolting up Procedure Using Finite Element Analysis and Elastic Interaction Coefficient Method
,”
PVP (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.)
0277-027X,
478
, pp.
155
162
.
18.
Nassar
,
S. A.
, and
Alkelani
,
A. A.
, 2006, “
Clamp Load Loss Due to Elastic Interaction and Gasket Creep Relaxation in Bolted Joints
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
0094-9930,
128
, pp.
394
401
.
19.
Nassar
,
S. A.
,
Wu
,
Z.
, and
Yang
,
X.
, 2008, “
A New Tightening Methodology for Gasketed Joints Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis
,”
Proceedings of PVP2008
, Chicago.
20.
Alkelani
,
A. A.
,
Nassar
,
S. A.
, and
Housari
,
B. A.
, 2009, “
Formulation of Elastic Interaction Between Bolts During the Tightening of Flat-Face Gasketed Joints
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
0161-8458,
131
(
2
), p.
021004
.
21.
Nassar
,
S. A.
, and
Yang
,
X.
, 2009, “
Novel Formulation of Bolt Elastic Interaction in Gasketed Joints
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
0094-9930,
131
(
5
), p.
051204
.
22.
Jakubowski
,
A.
, and
Schmidt
,
H.
, 2005, “
Ermüdungssichere Bemessung vorgespannter Ringflanschstöße unter Berücksichtigung von Flanschimperfektionen
,”
Stahlbau
0038-9145,
74
(
6
), pp.
452
461
.
23.
Kim
,
J.
,
Yoon
,
J.-C.
, and
Kang
,
B.-S.
, 2007, “
Finite Element Analysis and Modeling of Structure With Bolted Joints
,”
Appl. Math. Model.
0307-904X,
31
, pp.
895
911
.
24.
Montgomery
,
J.
, 2002, “
Methods for Modeling Bolts in the Bolted Joint
,”
ANSYS User’s Conference
, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation, Orlando, FL.
You do not currently have access to this content.