In this paper, the strength and buoyancy problems of the floating roof with continuous beams and dome frames are analyzed by the finite element method (FEM) and model experiment method. The modified-loading method with relationship between deflection and load is developed to carry out the FEM analysis of the floating roof under rainwater loading, and a model experiment is also configured to prove the reasonability of the numerical method and to assist the analysis. The deflections, strains, and sinking problems of the floating roof with continuous beams and dome frames are simulated by the present FEM and tested by the experiment, respectively. The floating roof without beams, ribs, or frames is also simulated by the present FEM. The numerical results are compared to the corresponding experimental ones. According to these results, the problems of strength and buoyancy of the floating roof with continuous beams and dome frames are also investigated and discussed. These results will provide some available references to designs and studies in the industry.

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