The discrete element method can be used for modeling moving granular media in which heat and mass transport takes place. In this paper the concept of discrete element modeling with special emphasis on applicable force laws is introduced and the necessary equations for heat transport within particle assemblies are derived. Possible flow regimes in moving granular media are discussed. The developed discrete element model is applied to a new staged reforming process for biomass and waste utilization which employs a solid heat carrier. Results are presented for the flow regime and heat transport in substantial vessels of the process.
Modeling of Granular Flow and Combined Heat Transfer in Hoppers by the Discrete Element Method (DEM)
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Kruggel-Emden, H., Wirtz, S., Simsek, E., and Scherer, V. (October 27, 2005). "Modeling of Granular Flow and Combined Heat Transfer in Hoppers by the Discrete Element Method (DEM)." ASME. J. Pressure Vessel Technol. August 2006; 128(3): 439–444. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2218349
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