Major improvements in weld inspection are obtained using Phased Array technology with capability for beam steering, electronic scanning, focusing, and sweeping the ultrasonic beams. Electronic scanning is much faster than raster scanning, and can optimize angles and focusing to maximize defect detection. Pressure vessel (PV) inspections typically use “top, side, end” or “top, side, TOFD” views, though other imaging is possible. Special inspections can be performed, e.g., for specific defects, or increased coverage. Defects can be sized by pulse-echo as per code, by time-of-flight Diffraction or by back diffraction. New PV inspection codes, particularly ASME Code Case 2235, permit the use of advanced ultrasonic inspection techniques. Pipeline girth weld inspections use a unique inspection approach called “zone discrimination,” and have their own series of codes. While similar equipment is used in pipeline as in PV inspections, the pipeline philosophy is to tailor the inspection to the weld profile and predicted lack of fusion defects. Pipeline displays are specifically designed for near real-time data analysis. Both ASME CC 2235 and the pipeline codes permit the use of Fitness-For-Purpose, which reduces construction costs. Overall, phased array systems meet or exceed all PV and pipeline codes.

1.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section V, 2001, 2003 rev., American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
2.
ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials
, ASTM E-1961-98, “
Standard Practice for Mechanized Ultrasonic Examination of Girth Welds Using Zonal Discrimination With Focused Search Units
,” September 1998.
3.
API
, American Petroleum Institute Standard 1104, “
Welding of Pipelines and Related Facilities
,”
Nineteenth Edition
, September 1999.
4.
DNV
, Det Norske Veritas OS-F101 “
Submarine Pipeline Systems
,” January 2000.
5.
ISO 13487, International Standard ISO 13847:2000 Technical Corrigendum 1, “
Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries–Pipeline Transportation Systems–Welding of Pipelines
,” Published 2001-12-15.
6.
ASME
, Code Case 2235-4, “
Use of Ultrasonic Examination in Lieu of Radiography, Section I and VIII, Divisions 1 and 2
,” November 30, 2001, American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
7.
R/D Tech, Inc.
, “
Introduction to Phased Array Ultrasonic Technology Applications
,” Coordinator,
N.
Dube
, © R/D Tech August 2004.
8.
Clay
A. C.
,
Wooh
,
S-C.
,
Azar
,
L.
, and
Wang
,
J-Y.
, 1999, “
Experimental Study of Phased Array Beam Characteristics
,”
J. Nondestruct. Eval.
0195-9298,
18
(
2
), p.
59
.
9.
Wüstenberg
H
,
Erhard
,
A.
, and
Shenk
,
G.
, “
Some Charateristic Parameters of Ultrasonic Phased Array Probes and Equipments
,” NDT.net, vol.
4
, No.
4
, http://www.ndt.net/article/v04n04/wuesten/wsuesten.htmhttp://www.ndt.net/article/v04n04/wuesten/wsuesten.htm
10.
Lafontaine
G.
and
Cancre
,
F.
, “
Potential of Ultrasonic Phased Arrays for Faster, Better and Cheaper Inspections
”, NDT.net, vol.
5
, No.
10
, October 2000; http://www.ndt.net/article/v05n10/lafont2/lafont2.htmhttp://www.ndt.net/article/v05n10/lafont2/lafont2.htm.
11.
Ciorau
P.
,
MacGillivray
,
D.
,
Hazelton
,
T.
,
Gilham
,
L.
,
Craig
,
D.
, and
Poguet
,
J.
, “
In-Situ Examination of ABB l-0 Blade Roots and Rotor Steeple of Low-Pressure Steam Turbine, Using Phased Array Technology
,”
15th World Conference on NDT
, Rome, Italy, October 11–15, 2000.
12.
Moles
M. D. C.
, and
Zhang
,
J.
, 2005, “
Construction Weld Testing Procedures Using Ultrasonic Phased Arrays
,”
Mater. Eval.
0025-5327,
63
(
1
), p.
27
.
13.
Dubé
,
N.
, “
Electric Resistance Welding Inspection
,”
15th WCNDT
, Rome, Italy, October 2000.
14.
Jacques
F
,
Moreau
,
F.
, and
Ginzel
,
E. A.
, 2003, “
Ultrasonic Backscatter Using Phased Array–Developments in Tip Diffraction Flaw Sizing
,”
Insight
1060-135X,
45
(
11
), p.
724
.
15.
Gross
B.
,
O’Beirne
,
J.
, and
Delanty
,
B.
, “
Comparison of Radiographic and Ultrasonic Inspection Methods on Mechanized Girth Welds
,”
Pipeline Technology Conference
, 15–17 October, 1990, Ostend, Belgium.
16.
Connelly
,
T.
, “
Update on the Alliance Pipeline
”,
International Conference on Advances in Welding Technology
, October 26–28, 1999, Galveston, Texas, sponsored by EWI and AWS.
17.
Morgan
L.
,
Nolan
,
P.
,
Kirkham
,
A.
, and
Wilkinson
,
P.
, “
The Use of Automated Ultrasonic Testing (AUT) in Pipeline Testing
,” Insight November 2003.
18.
Moles
,
M. D. C.
, and
Labbé
,
S.
, “
Automated Ultrasonic Inspection of Pressure Vessel Welds
,” 16 WCNDT, Montreal, Canada, August 30–Sept 3, 2004.
You do not currently have access to this content.