The practical testing of pipes in a pipe network has shown that there are issues concerning the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves through bends. It is therefore desirable to improve the understanding of the reflection and transmission characteristics of the bend. First, the dispersion curves for toroidal structures have been calculated using a finite element method, as there is no available analytical solution. Then the factors affecting the transmission and reflection behavior have been identified by studying a straight-curved-straight structure both numerically and experimentally. The frequency dependent transmission behavior obtained is explained in terms of the modes propagating in the straight and curved sections of the pipe.
The Effect of Bends on the Propagation of Guided Waves in Pipes
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Demma, A., Cawley, P., Lowe, M., and Pavlakovic, B. (February 3, 2005). "The Effect of Bends on the Propagation of Guided Waves in Pipes." ASME. J. Pressure Vessel Technol. August 2005; 127(3): 328–335. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1990211
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