Conformable eddy current sensors with grid methods can provide an effective means for applied stress measurements and for characterization of residual stresses in steel components. This paper describes conformable MWM® (meandering winding magnetometer) sensors and high-resolution scanning MWM-Arrays for directional magnetic permeability measurements over a wide range of frequencies with grid methods. MWMs and MWM-Arrays are used for fatigue monitoring, crack detection, characterization of process-affected layers, including coatings, detection of surface-connected and hidden degradation, and damage characterization, e.g., detection and imaging of grinding burns. Tests have shown that these sensors can also provide the capability for residual/applied stress measurements in ferromagnetic materials, e.g., in steels. Specific examples described here illustrate this capability to estimate stresses in steels and other ferromagnetic materials from MWM measured permeability. Results of directional MWM permeability measurements, including permeability mapping, are presented here for (a) a 4340 steel specimen subjected to a series of tensile load tests with an incrementally increasing maximum load, (b) a broken 4340 tensile test specimen, (c) a shot-peened 300M steel specimen subjected to bending load tests, and (d) a shot-peened and subsequently ground high-strength steel component. Quick and inexpensive stress measurements at a point or, in a scanning mode, over a selected area are now becoming possible without permanently mounting sensors, albeit MWM sensors can be readily mounted, if needed, as well.

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