The oxidation behavior of steel was studied at 600, 700 and 800°C for a sequence of times up to 1000 h, using cylindrical specimens of the material, similar to testpieces used in high-temperature creep testing. The various samples exposed to different degrees of oxidation were investigated by optical and electron scanning microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The oxidation rate expressed as gain of mass per area was observed to gradually slow down with the exposure time according to an approximated parabolic behavior, at all temperature levels. Multilayer oxide formation was observed to occur involving oxides with various compositions and crystallographic structures. Three main oxide layers were detected: (a) an internal one, of an spinel form, containing: molybdenum; (b) an intermediate one, of an magnetite type; (c) an external one consisting of α hematite. In some instances, there was a fourth stratum formation in local spaces left by a separation between the hematite and magnetite interfaces. Each of these layers was observed to exhibit different morphological aspects, with needlelike crystals of hematite occurring at the free external surface of the material.
High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Steel in Air—Part 1: Gain of Mass Kinetics and Characterization of the Oxide Scale
Contributed by the Pressure Vessels and Piping Division and presented at the Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference (Joint w/ICPVT), Boston, Massachusetts, August 1–5, 1999, of THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. Manuscript received by the PVP Division, January, 2000; revised manuscript received October 27, 2000. Editor: S. Y. Zamrik.
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Marino , L., and Bueno, L. O. (October 27, 2000). "High-Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Steel in Air—Part 1: Gain of Mass Kinetics and Characterization of the Oxide Scale ." ASME. J. Pressure Vessel Technol. February 2001; 123(1): 88–96. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1335499
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